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  • S E R V I N G C A N A D I A N S A U S E R V I C E D E S C A N A D I E N S

    BBeesstt PPrraaccttiicceess wwhheerree tthheerree iiss FFaammiillyy VViioolleennccee

    ((CCrriimmiinnaall LLaaww PPeerrssppeeccttiivvee))

  • ©Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, 2014 ISBN 978-1-100-23200-3 Cat. No. J4-32/2014E-PDF

  • Best Practices where there is Family Violence

    (Criminal Law Perspective)

    Prepared By: Joseph Di Luca

    Erin Dann Breese Davies

    Presented to:

    Family, Children and Youth Section Department of Justice Canada

    2012

    The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of

    the Department of Justice Canada.

    Aussi disponible en français

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................... 1

    2. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 3

    3. PRE-CHARGE ...................................................................................................................... 4

    3.1 Advising a Potential Complaint ................................................................................... 4

    3.1.1 Ensuring a Complaint’s Safety and Building a Case ....................................... 4 3.1.2 Consequences of Making a Complaint to the Police ....................................... 5 3.1.3 Family Law Options ......................................................................................... 6

    3.2 Interviewing Child Complainants ................................................................................ 7

    3.2.1 Obtaining Videotaped Statements .................................................................... 7 3.2.2 Child-Centre Facilities ..................................................................................... 7

    4. ARREST AND BAIL ............................................................................................................ 9

    4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 9

    4.2 Bail Basics.................................................................................................................. 10

    4.2.1 Summons and Appearance Notices ................................................................ 10 4.2.2 Promise to Appear and Recognizance ............................................................ 11 4.2.3 Held for Bail Hearing ..................................................................................... 12

    4.3 Crown Approach to Bail in Cases of Alleged Family Violence ................................ 13

    4.3.1 Collecting Information for Bail Hearings ...................................................... 13

    4.4 Common Bail Conditions........................................................................................... 15

    4.4.1 “No contact directly or indirectly with the complainant except through a mutually agreeable third-party or pursuant to a Family Court order and only for purposes of arranging and facilitating child access” ................................ 15 4.4.2 “Contact with children to be exercised under the supervision of the child protection agency or pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction” .................................................................................................... 16 4.4.3 “Contact with children pursuant to a family court order that post-dates the date of this order” “Contact with children pursuant to a Family Court order” .. ........................................................................................................................ 18

    4.5 Defence Counsel / Duty Counsel Approach to Bail .................................................. 19

    4.5.1 Ensuring Reasonable Bail Conditions ............................................................ 19 4.5.2 Checklist for Defence Counsel and Duty Counsel ......................................... 20 4.5.3 Advising a Client after Release ...................................................................... 21

    4.6 Bail Violations ........................................................................................................... 22

    4.6.1 Advice to Accused ......................................................................................... 22 4.6.2 Advice to Complainants ................................................................................. 23

    4.7 Bail Variations ........................................................................................................... 23

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    4.7.1 The Cooperative Complainant ....................................................................... 24 4.7.1.1 Bail Variations in Anticipation of a Guilty Plea .............................. 24 4.7.1.2 Peace Bonds and Withdrawals ......................................................... 24 4.7.2 The Adversarial Complainant ........................................................................ 26 4.7.3 Bail variations versus Bail Reviews ............................................................... 26

    5. PRE-TRIAL DECISIONS AND PROCEDURES .............................................................. 28

    5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 28

    5.2 Cooperating with Child Protection Authorities ......................................................... 28

    5.2.1 The Role of the Child Protection Agency ...................................................... 28 5.2.2 Working with the Child Protection Agency ................................................... 29 5.2.3 Admissibility of Statements made to Child Protection Authorities ............... 30 5.2.4 Checklist for Interviews with the Children’s Aid Society ............................. 31

    5.3 Use of Evidence from Family Law Proceedings in Criminal Proceedings ................ 33

    5.3.1 The Deemed Undertaking Rule ...................................................................... 33 5.3.2 Protection from Self-Incrimination ................................................................ 34

    5.4 Use of Counselling and other Support Services in Criminal Proceedings ................. 35

    5.4.1 Third Party Record Applications ................................................................... 35 5.4.1.1 The O’Connor Regime ..................................................................... 36 5.4.1.2 The Mills Regime............................................................................. 37 5.4.1.3 Resisting Defence Applications for Production ............................... 39

    5.5 Use of Child Protection Files in Criminal Proceedings ............................................. 39

    5.5.1 Joint CAS and Police Investigations .............................................................. 40 5.5.2 CAS Files as Third Party Records ................................................................. 40 5.5.3 CAS Files in the Possession of an Accused ................................................... 41

    5.6 Use of an Accused’s Counselling Records ................................................................ 41

    5.6.1 Case Study – R. v. Pabani (1994) .................................................................. 43 5.6.2 Participation in “PARS” ................................................................................. 43

    5.7 Use of “Crown Brief” in Family and Child Protection Proceedings ......................... 43

    5.7.1 The General Rule – P.(D.) v. Wagg ............................................................... 43 5.7.2 Information Sharing Between Police Services and Child Protection ................. Agencies ......................................................................................................... 44 4.7.2.1 Joint Protocols .................................................................................. 45 4.7.2.2 Motion for Production ...................................................................... 48

    6. TRIAL STAGE ................................................................................................................... 48

    6.1 The Integrated Domestic Violence Court .................................................................. 48 6.2 Evidentiary issues ...................................................................................................... 49 6.2.1 Reluctant and Recanting Witnesses ............................................................... 51 6.2.2 Evidence of Prior Discreditable Conduct ....................................................... 53 6.2.3 Expert Evidence ............................................................................................. 53

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    6.3 Delay .......................................................................................................................... 53

    6.3.1 “Prejudice” Caused by Delay in the Criminal C