Transitions politiques et société civile Dans le cadre du cours du Prof. Riccardo BOCCO IHEID,...

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Transcript of Transitions politiques et société civile Dans le cadre du cours du Prof. Riccardo BOCCO IHEID,...

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  • Transitions politiques et socit civile Dans le cadre du cours du Prof. Riccardo BOCCO IHEID, Genve 4 Dcembre 2009 Benot Challand CCDP IHEID benoit.challand@eui.eu
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  • 2 Prsentation Dmocratie Auteurs Transition et dmocratisation Phase Thmes Resource handbook Societe civile Gnalogie Dfinitions Pistes de recherches Un cas: la socit civile palestinienne
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  • 3 WHAT IS DEMOCRACY?
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  • 4 Approche procdurale Elections Accs aux partis politiques ? aux lections? Libres ? Rsultat connu lavance ? Sparation des pouvoirs (checks and balances) Excutif Lgislatif Judiciaire et les militaires ??! Droits Vote et ligibilit Association Information
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  • 5 Approche substantielle Principes Majorit (consensus) Reprsentation Citoyennet Accountability Droits sociaux de bases et droits politiques Pluralisme Non-prdictible et ouverture Devoirs de lEtat Normes lgales et constitutionnelles Minorits Rpondre aux requtes ds citoyen-ne-s Non-discrimination (sexe, race, religion, etc.)
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  • 6 Des classiques (1) T.H. Marshall (1950). Citizenship and social class and other essays Citoyennet comme sequence de droits civils, politiques puis sociaux Joseph Schumpeter Vision de la dmocratie comme lieu de comptition Comme le march, comptition entre elites 1942 - Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy Dahl, Robert Alan, 1971 - Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition 1989 - Democracy and Its Critics
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  • 7 Des classiques (2): transition Philippe Schmitter Corporatisme et no-corporatisme Dmocratie et qualit de la dmocratie Union Europenne et dficite dmocratique Philippe C. Schmitter, Guillermo ODonnell, 1986 - Transitions from authoritarian rule : prospects for democracy Joseph Schumpeter Pacted transition Adam Przeworksi Dmocratie de march Samuel Huntington Les vagues de democratisation
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  • 9 Quelques poncifs Totalitarisme - autoritaire Rgimes prtoriens Anticommunisme Lipset et les prerequisites Le dogme conomiste Libralisation conomique provoque libralisation politique Transitions Carothers: moving away is moving towards ? Etapes fixes (pact & opening, break-through, et consolidation) Electoralisme Socit civile
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  • 10 Des angles morts Autonomie externe Cf Philippe Schmitter & Terry Karl (1991) What Democracy is and is not, Journal of Democracy, 2(3), 75-88 Free from external interferences! Certains mythes Benevolent actors Les limites de lenfranchisement Totalitarisme post 9/11 Le pige institutionnel Lenfer est pav de bonnes intentions Aid industry
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  • 11 La ralit Autres facteurs: Pacted transition Path-dependency Structural approach Rgimes hybrides Le monde acadmique et la pratique de la CID Carothers Learning Curve Des mondes spars? Ralit politique Systme des partis uniques Transitions contrles Exporter la dmocratie (overnight) ?
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  • 13 Resource Handbook Swiss Expert Pool for Civilian Peace Building DFAE (Div. Politique IV - Human Security) Pool of 300 spcialistes Training: basic and advanced courses 2005 Resource Handbook http://www.eda.admin.ch/sub_expool/e/home.html
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  • 14 Why the Resource Handbook? Challenge of civilian peacebuilding is a daunting task! Multifaceted techniques of peacebuilding Vast resources available but scattered You must also tackle the human potential problems of peacebuilding! Give you peacebuilders top support! Clearly structured and easily accessible files Help you to find quick analytical issues Find the best material selected for you by specialists (practitioners and researchers alike) Find tools (some online) to help you in your daily work
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  • 15 Thmes traits dans le Handbook 1. Mediation 2. Negotiation 3. Human Rights 4. Transitional Justice 5. International Human Rights 6. Refugees 7. Good Governance 8. Capacity and Institutional Building 9. Gender and Peacebuilding 10. Penitentiary Systems 11. Minority Rights 12. Non-State Armed Groups 13. Child Soldiers 14. Small Arms 15. Anti-Personal Mines 16. Internally Displace Persons 17. Migration Policy 18. Trafficking in Human Beings
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  • 16 19. Conflict Analysis / Transformation / Prevention 20. Business, Conflict and Human Rights 21. Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration 22. Election Observation/Administration 1. Democratisation 23. Torture 24. Adult Training Tools Thmes traits dans le Handbook
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  • 17 Structure Introduction 5 Key Documents 5 Books 5 Articles 5 Manuals/Guide/Handbooks Websites Organisations Other: Cross references index easy to find
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  • 18 Gnalogie (1): Aristote La Politique, I Nous voyons que toute cit est une sorte de communaut, et que toute communaut est constitute en vue dun certain bien (car cest en vue dobtenir ce qui leur apparat comme un bien que tous les hommes accomplissent toujours leurs actes): il en rsulte clairement que si toutes les communauts visent un bien dtermin, celle qui est la plus haute de toutes et englobe toutes les autres vise aussi, plus que les autres, un bien qui est le plus haut de tous. Cette communaut est celle qui est appele cit, cest la communaut politique Traduction: J. Tricot, La Politique dAristote, Les Belles Lettres, p. 598
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  • 19 Gnalogie (2): la version latine Traduction en latin dAristote (Moerbecke) Thomas dAquin (1225-1274) Leonardo Bruni (15 sicle) Renaissance Florence et vertus civiques
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  • 20 Gnalogie (3): lide du contrat social Hobbes (1588-1679) - bellum omnium contra omnes Thomas Locke (1632-1704) J.-J. Rousseau (1712-1778) G. F. W. Hegel (1770-1831) Tocqueville (1805-1859)
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  • 21 Gnalogie (4): du marxisme au no-libralisme K. Marx (1818-1883) A. Gramsci (1891-1937) Europe de l`Est Dmocratisation et No-liberalisme
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  • 22 Public Sphere (Habermas) Deliberation Civil Sphere (Jeffrey Alexander) Cultural sociology Civil society and the Muslim majority societies Armando Salvatore Gnalogie (5)
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  • 23 Civil society can be defined as a set or system of self-organised intermediary groups that: (1) are relatively independent of both public authorities and private units of production and reproduction, that is, of firms and families; (2) are capable of deliberating about and taking collective actions in defence or promotion their interests of passions; (3) do not seek to replace either state agents or private (re)producers or to accept responsibility for governing the polity as a whole; and (4) agree to act within pre-established rules of a civil, i.e. mutually respectful nature SCHMITTER P. C., 1997, Civil Society East and West, in DIAMOND & al. (eds.), Consolidating Third Wave Democracies, p. 240
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  • 24 Its [of civil society] institutional core comprises those non-governmental and non-economic connections and voluntary associations that anchor the communication structures of the public sphere in the society component of the lifeworld. Civil society is composed of those more or less spontaneously emergent associations, organizations and movements that, attuned to how societal problems resonate in the private life spheres, distil and transmit such reactions in the amplified form to the public sphere. The core of civil society comprises a network of associations that institutionalizes problem- solving discourses on questions of general interest inside the framework of organized public spheres. These discursive designs have an egalitarian, open form of organization []. All the same, they do form the organizational substratum of the general public of citizens. Habermas J. Facts and Norms 1996, 366-367 Definition - HABERMAS
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  • 25 Stratgies de recherche Quantitative Nombre / Fonds internationaux / Un premier pas seulement Qualitative Discursive / Lobby / Difficile mesurer Institutionnelle Gouvernance / pratiques bureaucratiques Origines des pratiques (USA) Dpendance Difficile mesurer
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  • 26 (1) La socit civile en Palestine avant larrive de laide trangre
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  • 27 (3) La situation dhtronomie
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  • 28 (4) Vers un modle dautonomie ?
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  • 29 Towards an impoverished civil society Funding mechanisms: Project programme Tied aid Managerialism LANGUAGE (buzzword) Grey literature on civil society Selecting key actors Reproduction of doxa Disciplining process: conference, duplication, in circle Other: Donors turn-over Technocratic politics (expertise) Anti-politics machine