Trans Cultural Nursing 1

download Trans Cultural Nursing 1

of 28

Transcript of Trans Cultural Nursing 1

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    A humanistic and scientific area offormal study and practice in nursing

    which is focused upon differences andsimilarities among cultures with respectto human care, health, and illnessbased upon the people's cultural

    values, beliefs, and practices, and touse this knowledge to provide culturalspecific or culturally congruent nursingcare to people ... Leininger

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Leininger (1991) notes the main goal

    of transcultural nursing is to provideculturally specific care. But beforetranscultural nursing can be adequately

    understood, there must be a basicknowledge of key terminology such asculture, cultural values, culturally

    diverse nursing care, ethnocentrism, "race " and ethnography.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Culture refers to normsand practices of a particular

    group that are learned andshared and guide thinking,decisions, and actions.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Cultural values the individual'sdesirable or preferred way of actingor knowing something that issustained over a period of time and

    which governs actions or decisions.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Culturally diverse nursing care an

    optimal mode of health care delivery,refers to the variability of nursing

    approaches needed to provide culturally

    appropriate care that incorporates anindividuals cultural values, beliefs, and

    practices including sensitivity to the

    environment from which the individual

    comes and to which the individual may

    ultimately return. (Leininger, 1985)

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Ethnocentrism the perceptionthat one's own way is best when

    viewing the world (Geiger &

    Davidhizar, 1991). Our perspective

    is the standard by which all other

    perspectives are measured and heldto scrutiny.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Ethnic relates to groupidentification, large groups

    of people classifiedaccording to common traits

    or customs.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Race Any of the differentvarieties of humans assumed

    by some people to exist,based on the discredited

    typological model of humanvariation.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Ethnography is the study of a culture.The methodological approach of

    ethnographic research central to the nurse's

    ability to develop a heightened awareness ofculturally diverse needs of individuals, is to

    define a field for observation for study of

    the environment and its people, as well as

    the reciprocal relationship that exists

    between the two (Tripp-Reimer &

    Dougherty, 1985).

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    CULTUREIn a multicultural society such as ours, nurses

    are likely to encounter clients from diverse

    settings. As nurses we need to develop a culturalinsight and a deeper appreciation and respect for

    the rights of culturally diverse individuals. When

    cultural beliefs and practices are not

    appropriately identified, the significance ofbehavior may confuse the nurse and result in the

    delivery of inappropriate care.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    VariationsBiological variations are those diversemanifestations of "normal" that existbetween people with respect to, bodystructure- skin color- other visiblephysical characteristics- enzymatic andgenetic variations- electrocardiographic

    patterns- susceptibility to disease-nutritional preferences and deficiencies,and - psychological characteristics.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Biological differences between

    human beings, that is the smallgene variations that give peopledifferent hair colors, make

    individuals more prone to certaindiseases and determine how peoplereact to drugs, are in most cases,the result of both hereditary factorsand the influence of natural andsocial environments.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    Abilities of members of a

    particular group to plan activities

    that control nature, such as factors

    causing illness. Health practices,

    values, definitions of health andillness.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    Refers to the family unit, and the

    social group organizations with

    which the patients and familiesmay identify. It refers to ways in

    which groups determine roles of

    individual members.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Culture is determined not only by

    ethnicity but by factors such asgeography, age, religion, gender,

    sexual orientation, andsocioeconomic status. Understand

    that age and life cycle factors must

    be considered in interactions withall individuals and families.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Patterns of cultural behavior learned

    through enculturation. Recognize and

    accept that individuals from culturally

    diverse backgrounds may desire

    varying degrees of acculturation into

    the dominant culture. Life cycle factors

    must be considered in interactions withindividuals and families

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    Communication is the vehicle for

    transmitting and preserving

    culture. Communicationdifferences present themselves

    in many ways, including

    language differences, verbal andnon-verbal behaviors, and


  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    Miscommunication is a frequent

    problem in hospitals. The most

    obvious is when the patient and

    hospital staff do not speak the same

    language. But the more subtleproblems are those that result from

    cultural differences in meanings of

    non verbal behavior. Knowing whatis the norm within the culture will

    facilitate understanding and lessen


  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    Particularly the comfort level

    related to personal space. - comfort

    in conversation, proximity to others,

    body movement, perception of

    space. Eye contact, space, and touchpractices may be very different than

    your sphere of reference.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    INTIMATE ZONE extends up to 1

    feet.PERSONAL DISTANCE extends

    from 1 to 4 feet.SOCIAL DISTANCE extends from 4

    to 12 feet.

    PUBLIC DISTANCE extends 12 feetor more

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    Concept of the passage of time,

    duration of time, and points in time.

    Countries such as England and Chinaseem to be past oriented. They value

    tradition, doing things the way they

    have always been done. Individualsfrom these countries might be reluctant

    to try new procedures.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    People from present oriented cultures

    tend to focus on the here and now.

    They may be relatively unconcerned

    with the future, they will deal with it

    when it comes. Latin Americans,

    Native Americans, and Middle

    Easterners are present oriented culturesand may neglect preventive health care

    measures. They may show-up late or

    not at all for appointments.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    European Americans are future

    oriented as evidenced by their

    development of plans, such as

    retirement and savings. People

    who are future-oriented are

    concerned with long-range goals

    and with health care measuresin the present to prevent the

    occurrence of illness in the


  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    Refers to the process through which

    the nurse provides care that is

    appropriate to the client's culturalcontext

    Culturally competent nurses are those

    who demonstrate knowledge and

    understanding of the client's culture;

    accept and respect cultural

    differences; and adapt care to be

    con ruent with the client's culture.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1





    cognitive process in which the

    nurse becomes aware of andsensitive to the client's cultural

    values, beliefs, and practices.

    CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE thenurse seeks a sound

    educational base about different


  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1


    CULTURAL SKILLS the nurse's

    ability to perform a culturally

    specific assessmentCULTURAL ENCOUNTERS the

    nurse interacts with client's from

    diverse cultural backgrounds.CULTURAL DESIRE the nurse's

    motivation to become culturally


  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    History of the origins of the patients' culture. Value orientations, including view of the world, ethics,

    and norms and standards of behavior as well as

    attitudes about time, work, money, education, beauty,

    strength, and change. Interpersonal relationships, including family patterns,

    demeanor, and roles and relationships.

  • 8/3/2019 Trans Cultural Nursing 1



    Communication patterns and forms. Religion and magic. Social systems, including economic values, political

    systems, and educational patterns. Diet and food habits. Health and illness belief systems, including behaviors,

    decision making, and use of healthcare providers.