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    Hellenismand

    Alexander the Great

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    T he Hellenistic World

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    Alexander

    Creativity in LeadershipCreated and followed plans in thedays when no one else seemed toeven make plansThe plans succeeded because: Personal desires for greatness

    Inspired confidence Dedication to execution of the plan

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    Alexander the Great

    Personal Desire for GreatnessA s a boy, A lexander said:

    My father will get ahead of me in everything, and will leave nothing great

    for me to do.

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    The "perfect Greek" Handsome

    Well educated (by A ristotle) Respectful of Greek past (memorized and carried

    with him a copy of the I lliad ) A dept in rhetoric and diplomacy (ambassador)

    A thletic (competing throughout his life) Scientist (strong interest in plants, animals,

    geography, and even took scientists on hiscampaigns)

    Alexander

    Inspired Confidence

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    The Perfect General Never lost a battle

    Personally fought in battles (woundedseveral times) A fter a battle mingled with the survivors Honored the dead

    Strongly religious burialsExempted their families from further militaryduty and from taxes

    Broke up regional regiments to have

    loyalty directly to him

    Alexander

    Inspired Confidence

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    The Perfect Conqueror Spared families of conquered kings

    This won the cooperation of the families

    Treated conquered soldiers with respectThis convinced some conquered soldiers toswitch sides and support him

    Respected local religions and customsDesert soothsayerRebuilt Karnak and Luxor temples

    Alexander

    Inspired Confidence

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    Alexander

    Ruthless execution of his plansExecution of rivals in the Macedoniancourt (sensed because his father had

    been assassinated by a personal guard)Suppression of the Thebian revolt30,000 Thebians sold into slavery

    Tyre destroyed (except the temples andthe house of Pindar the poet, whichperpetuated A lexanders image as the

    Perfect Greek")

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    Alexander

    Ruthless execution of his planDestroy the Persian portsBattle of Granicus River Crossing of the river during morning Persian sacrifices to the sun and

    sudden cavalry attackGordian knotBattle of Issus Greeks outnumbered 3 to 1 (some say 10 to 1) Persian emperor, Darius III, personally commanding the

    Persian army A lexander personally led attack directly at Darius III Darius fled, the Persians broke, and the Greeks won the

    battle Spared lives of queen and court (admiration from Persians)

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    Alexander

    Ruthless execution of his planBattle of Phoenicia and JudeaEgypt Welcomed A lexander

    Recognized as Pharaoh

    He founded A lexandriaBecame the center of learning

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    Alexander

    Ruthless execution of his planBattle of Gaugamela A lexander crossed the Tigris River and

    waited Several celestial events over next three

    nights A lexander attacked directly at Darius and

    Darius fled Darius was killed by his own troops

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    AlexanderRuthless execution of his plan

    Conquest of Eastern PersiaConquest of Bactria ( A fghanistan and Pakistan)Turning aside at India and return to Persia

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    Post-Alexander Empire

    Empire divided bythe generals

    EgyptPtolemy Persian area and

    IndiaSeleucus Pergamum A ttalids Greece, A sia Minor,

    Macedonia4generals

    1 year old son did not receive the throne

    Ptolemy Seleucus Attalids 4 Generals

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    Hellenization

    Hellenistic kingdoms (dynasties) Border wars between each other

    Imported Greeks as bureaucrats,soldiers, artisans (Greek-like cities)Greeks offered land for immigration

    Occupied kingdoms adopted Greek ways

    in addition to their own cultureEgyptians, PersiansSome Jews resisted (Pharisees versusSaducees)

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    HellenizationGreek became languageof art and commerce Language of the Eastern

    Mediterranean throughRoman and ByzantineEmpires (until 1453 A D)

    Greek Trade Cities throughout empire Money standardized ( A thenian) Greeks were natural traders

    (ancient heritage)

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    Hellenistic Art

    Often showedmovementV ictory at Samothrace

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    Hellenistic Art

    Usually verydramaticLaocon and HisSons Story of a man who

    tried to convincethe Trojans not toaccept the Trojanhorse (killed byA thena with asnake)

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    Architecture

    Temple of the Muses built atA lexandria

    First state-supported university Teachers from all over the world Library with a copy of nearly every book

    Commerce and learning support each other

    Ships required to allow scribes to copy theirbooks

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    Architecture

    Lighthouse atA lexandria

    Pharos Island Over 400 feethigh

    Light intensified

    with reflectors One of 7 wonders

    of ancient world

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    ArchitectureTemple of Zeus at Pergamum

    Rivalry with A lexandria Scholars in A lexandria prohibited

    shipment of papyrus to Pergamum Pergamum developed parchment Parchment works best in sheets bound

    together (first books)

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    Hellenistic Science

    Euclid (320-260 BC) Lived in A lexandria

    CompiledE

    lements of Geometry Used as a text book until1900

    Basis for Newtonianphysics

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    Hellenistic ScienceA rchimedes (287-212 BC) Lived in Syracuse Greatest scientist until Newton Trained at A lexandria Major discoveries in

    hydraulics, mathematics,mechanics, warfare, andastronomy

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    Archimedes Hydraulics

    Invented a planetariumBuoyancy Kings crown

    The wreath andthe gold haveequal weight

    The wreathdisplaces

    more water

    MacedonianCrown

    4th

    c.

    BC

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    Archimedes MathematicsGeometric calculations A rea/volume of circle,

    sphere, coneDeveloped system

    similar to calculus Polygons inside circlewith ever highernumbers of sides

    Calculated value for pi( ) to accuracy of 0 . 0002

    Devised Scientificnotation (5 x 10 7 )

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    Archimedes Mechanics

    LeversDefined theory

    PulleysChallenge to draga ship

    Ship buildingGiant shipCargo of 60 ships

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    Archimedes Warfare

    War with the Romans Claw cranes

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    Archimedes Warfare

    CatapultsMirrors

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    Modern attempt to duplicatemirror warfare (at MI T)

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    Archimedes Creativity (Environment and Motivation )

    Favor to the King civic duty

    Scientific curiosityWarHis opinion of his greatestaccomplishment: "Perfect" geometric shape

    which he asked to beinscribed on his tomb

    Sphere inscribed in cylinderVolume ratios = 3:2Surface ratios = 3:2

    Ratio of volumes and areas of cone, sphere and cylinder =9:6:4

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    Hellenistic ScienceA ristarchus of Samos (250 BC) Purposed heliocentric universe

    Eratosthenes Calculated the

    circumference of the earth

    Claimed a ship

    could sail aroundA frica to India

    Claimed a shipcould sail west

    to India

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    Hellenistic Creativity

    Discussion: How can a leader affectcreativity?

    Discussion: Is theory more creativethan application?

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    T hank YouBe bold in your personal creativity.