HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I I
DIWAN-I-KHAS AND DIWAN-I-AAMFATEHPUR SIKRI
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I I I
HISTORYFatehpur Sikri is one of the best preserved examples of Mughal architecture in India.It is at Fatehpur Sikri that the legends of Akbar and his famed courtiers, the nine jewels or Navaratnas were born. He named the city Fatehabad, with Fateh, a word of Arabic origin in Persian, meaning "victorious." It was later called Fatehpur Sikri.Without disturbing the capital status of Agra, he shifted his residence and court to Fatehpur Sikri, situated some 40kms west of Agra.Here, he commenced the construction of a planned walled city, which took the next fifteen years in planning and construction, with a series of royal palaces, harem, courts, a mosque, private quarters and other utility buildings.The easy availability of sandstone in the neighboring areas of Fatehpur Sikri also meant that all the buildings here were made of the red stone.
ANUP TALAO - THE CHAR CHAMAND TANKPUBLIC COMPLEX PANCH MAHAL
BULAND DARWAZAJAMI MASJID
ARCHITECTUREFatehpur Sikri sits on rocky ridge, 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) in length and 1 km (0.62 mi) wide and palace city is surrounded by a 6 km (3.7 mi) wall on three sides with the fourth bordered by a lake.Its architects were R Roy and Dhruv Chawla and was constructed using Indian principles.The building material used in all the buildings at Fatehpur Sikri, palace-city complex, is the locally quarried red sandstone, known as 'Sikri sandstone'.It is accessed through gates along the 5 miles (8.0 km) long fort wall, namely, Delhi Gate, the Lal Gate, the Agra Gate and Birbal's Gate, Chandanpal Gate, T Gwalior Gate, the Tehra Gate, the Chor Gate and the Ajmere Gate.There is virtual separation by means of high enclosing walls.Skillful organization of the terrain (the ridge and slopes).Perfect system of drainage and water-supply.
GENERAL PLAN OF THE CITY
In accordance with social needs as Purdah and political compulsions as Security.The ridge did not have an even level, hence terraces on the receding levels were made one for each of the three main complexes, namely The Mosque ComplexThe Royal ComplexThe Public ComplexThe orientation of the buildings on all three terraces is on N-S axis of the ridge, facilitating them to either face east or north.
Some gates were double-storied buildings, each containing a suite of a hall and adjoining chambers and chatris on the roof.Gateways were stone-cased and impressively finished.
The free-standing structure situated in the center of this courtyard has come to be identified as the Diwan-i Khas.It is the grand spacious building which is situated to the south of the Khwabgah palace is Daftar khanah. (the royal office/ diwan-I-khas)Built in red sandstone, it is a square, symmetrical building measuring 13.18 meters/side on the exterior. It stands on a paneled plinth, 0.75 meters high. From without it appears double-storied; its four elevations are identical.VIEW OF DIWAN-I-KHAS
Interior measuring 28-8(8.74m).This is a square two-stored building with a balcony supported on heavy corbels above which is a chajja also supported on heavy corbels. On the roof there are domed chatris at each corner. It is about 1/3 of the total height of the building.Inside the building consists of a two-stored hall with a gallery at first-floor level. Bridges which run diagonally from the corners of the gallery connect to a balcony supported by a central pillar.
BRIDGES WHICH RUN DIAGONALLY FROM THE CORNERS OF THE GALLERY CONNECT TO A BALCONYDOMED CHATRIS AT EACH CORNER RICHLY CARVED PILLAR AND CENTRAL PILLAR REFLECT HINDU MANDALA
The pillar is richly carved in the Hindu tradition with a mass of heavy corbels supporting the circular balcony above.The arrangement of a square building with a central pillar may reflect some Hindu mandala whereby the central column represents the axis of the world.It is set on a plinth of adequate height, it is composed of an oblong hall and a wide and extremely spacious Dalan on its three sides, east, north and west.The southern side being in alignment with the lay-out of the court. The central opening on the southern side has wide projecting Jharokha overlooking the ridges.Dalans were made up of high pillars, brackets and lintels, supporting flat ceiling. Tapered square bases have used to give extra height to the pillars.Each opening occupies the whole thickness of the wall and has a sill and double grooves on either sides which gives the impression that double doors were used on each side.The ingenuity of Mughal karigars knew no bounds and many a Mughal design is a mystery to us today. This is because of the fine workmanship as well as strength and stability of the structures and quality of their production.The oblong entrance are superimposed by arched opening which were originally closed by jalis, admitting subdued light and air.
DOMED CHATRIS AT EACH CORNER
JALIS ADMITTING SUBDUCED LIGHT AND AIR
KRITTIMUKHA MOTIFF ON ALL SIDEBALCONY SUPPORTED BY HEAVY CORBELSCHAJJA SUPPORTED ON HEAVY CORLBELS
Due to some evidence, archeologists have confirmed that interiors and ceiling was originally painted, the sunk niches were used to relieve the mural monotony. These were finished with figurative subjects, depicting contemporary life. Pillars have square base bearing the kirttimukha motif on all sides, a 12-sided shaft and stalactite capital all carved in single piece, in each case.
AASECTION AT AAFRONT ELEVATIONGROUND FLOOR PLANFIRST FLOOR PLAN
VIEW OF DIWAN-I-AMMDiwan-i-Aam or Hall of Public Audience, is a building typology found in many cities where the ruler meets the general public. In this case, it is a pavilion-like multi-bayed rectangular structure fronting a large open space.It is situated at south-west of the Fatehpur Sikri city.It is a spacious oblong complex with a grand court and pillar dalans on all its sides , formal entrance which is no longer extant in their original form, have been given in east and south direction.
The first court of the palace complex towards the Diwan-i Aam, the entrance to Akbar's private residence. Dalans have decently raised plinth and are made up of square pillars, simple brackets and continuous broad projecting chajja.In the middle of western side has been provided the throne pavilion which is the only part of attraction in this simple building.It has a jalied balustrades and jali curtains separating the compartments.The most important feature of the central pavilion is Khaprel (stone tiled) over the verandah. It is in this element that faade and superstructure have been combined impressively. It is note worthy that some of these do not have arch and dome or any other typical Muslim feature.The throne faces east, the direction of rising sun in accordance with the belief of Akbar.Dalans were provided for the architectural feature of the Mughal style and were not always functional. Mughal fusion of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles was embodied in spacious courtyards, wide palaces, and open pavilions, quarried from the local sandstone and cooled by numerous water channels, ponds, and tanks.
An oblong complex comprising a large quadrangular space, 112.38 meters north-south and 55.20 meters east-west, it is wrapped by a colonnaded passageway (Dalan) composed of one hundred and eleven bays.The dalans, constructed from red sandstone, are set on a raised plinth and are composed of square stone columns with plain bases and slightly molded capitals. These are surmounted by simple brackets supporting stone lintels and a continuous eave (chajja). The Emperors pavilion is a small rectangular structure of red sandstone, measuring 9.27 by 6.65 meters, positioned symmetrically to the enclosure and projecting slightly into the courtyard. In plan, it is a single chamber with stone walls 1.10 meters thick surrounded by a portico, 3.05 meters wide. The flat-roofed chamber itself rises above the porticos.The portico is shaded by a stone-tile roof (khaprel) resting upon carved brackets, above which runs the same carved parapet as the one over the dalans. The eastern portico is divided by two exquisitely carved three-part trapezium screens, with the Emperors seat in the center.
PLAN OF DIWAN-I-AAM
VIEW OF DIWAN-I-AAMThe most impressive feature of this complex is the throne chamber facing east. It is said that it was so built because of Akbar believes in SUN WORSHIP.
THANK YOUPRESENTED BY-ABINASH SENAPATIARUN KUMAR ROUTAVINASH DUTTABAIJU SORENJAGDISH CHANDRA SAHOOK.ATHOUSANA SINGHA