TIME AND LIGHT PERCEPTION IN ANALOGS IN ... Subjective time perception experiment used application...

TIME AND LIGHT PERCEPTION IN ANALOGS IN ... Subjective time perception experiment used application computing
TIME AND LIGHT PERCEPTION IN ANALOGS IN ... Subjective time perception experiment used application computing
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  • TIME AND LIGHT PERCEPTION IN ANALOGS IN LUNARES HABITAT. A. M. Kołodziejczyk1 , M. Ha- rasymczuk2, L. Orzechowski3, A. Waśniowski4 and B. Foing5, 1Space Garden (www.lunares.space, fichbio@gmail.- com), 2ESA, ESTEC, 3Space is More (www.spaceismore.com), 4Medical University in Poznań, Poland, 5ESA ESTEC, ILEWG & VU AMSTERDAM.

    Introduction: Nearly all living organisms evolved circadian rhythms as synchronization to rotational movement of the Earth. Lunares habitat is a biological clock laboratory established in 2017 in Poland. The facility is designed to investigate optimal for physiolo- gy and health lighting conditions for future Moon and Mars human space missions. Within two-week analog simulations astronaut crews, insects, plants and algae undergo multiple experiments in fully isolated from natural sunlight and UTC time environment. A proto- type of physiological lighting administrated inside the habitat activates or inhibits multiple types of photoac- tive proteins responsible for homeostatic regulatory pathways including nervous, endocrine, digestive and immune systems in humans as well as growth and de- velopment processes in insects and plants. The habitat is additionally equipped with programmed LED light- ing system to simulate dawns and dusks (Fig. 1).

    Fig. 1. Non-invasive lighting studies in the Lunares habitat. RGB lighting simulates dawns and dusks (graphics: [1]). Prototypes of physiological lamps (right) synchronise biological clock of astronauts (photo: M. Słonina, modified by A. Kołodziejczyk).

    Fig.2. Experimental scheme for circadian time shifts during performed lunar analog simulations ran on the Lunar Standard Time [2]. Astronauts were mon- itored considering motivation and stress levels using a prototype device hanging on the astronaut necks during their active phases. Additionally, everyday they were

    reporting activity and sleep times, urine levels, water consumption, physiological parameters such as blood pressure, body temperature and heart rate.

    Biological clock experiments: During each of three organized analog simulations in 2017, circadian rhythms of 6 analog astronauts with independent con- trol groups were monitored for one month starting one week before the mission, during the mission and 1 week after the mission.

    Fig.3. Analog astronauts displayed modified water metabolism after changes in their circadian rhythms. Significant changes were observed for urination.

    During stay in the habitat, analog astronauts were exposed to 4 following circadian phases (Fig.2): first 3 days were 24h, next 4 days 26h (8h advance shift in total), next 4 days 22h (8h delay shift in total), and finally 3 days 24h before end of the mission. During this time analog astronauts had no idea about shifts, because the schedule and lighting system were inde- pendently controlled by the mission control center. Jet lag effects were analyzed including levels of stress, water consumption, urine production and motivation. 5 subjects underwent the procedure: 12 analog astronauts and 13 control group (without time shifts). Analog astronauts were exposed to time illusions through three different tools used by mission control center: specially adjusted scheduling with only two reference time points for briefings and debriefings, running the whole schedule on the lunar or martian clocks and light con- trol in the habitat. After two days of the mission, astro- nauts completely lost perception of time. Jet lag was detected by analog astronauts at phase III. Interesting- ly, phase II was not considered as shifted in time.

    1862.pdf49th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2018 (LPI Contrib. No. 2083)

    http://www.lunares.space http://www.spaceismore.com

  • Based on received data, astronauts’ stress and motiva- tion levels were evaluated to be decreased at the Phase III and slightly recovered at Phase IV. Water consump- tion and urination was changed with changing circadi- an phases (Fig.3). More studies need to be done to better understand this processes.

    Subjective Time Perception: The second parame- ter analyzed during analog simulations was subjective time perception in astronauts and control groups [3]. Data were collected using STPA software written by Matt Harasymczuk (direct link to the application at- tached below). Subjects were performing the test twice a day just after waking up and just before going to sleep. During the mission subjects were able to see their results and based on them improve their perfor- mance. Effect of training was observed in both analog astronauts groups as well as in controls, what means that subjective time perception is related with memory and learning neuronal circuits (Fig.4,5).

    Fig.4. Subjective time perception experiment used application computing time, regularity and tempo of 5s intervals of clicks (left). One month experiment was divided into two parts: with feedback during the mis- sion and without showing perception results for sub- jects 1 week before and 1 week after the mission (cen- ter).

    Fig.5. Significant effect of training was observed for both experimental ( 6 analog astronauts of the CREW) and control groups (MCC 3 - 3 volunteers from the mission control center).

    References: [1] Kolodziejczyk A. M., Orzechows- ki L. and Lakk H., Acta Futura 10 (2017), ISSN 2309- 1940. [2] www.lunarclock.org, [3] Kolodziejczyk A. M., Harasymczuk M. et al. (2017) Circadian Clock and Subjective Time PErception: A Simple Open Source Application for the Analysis of Induced Time Percep- tion in Humans, Conference Proceedings, Prague Czech Republic Mar 23-24, 19(3) Part VIV p. 1664-1668.

    Additional Information: www.lunares.space, www.space.garden, www.astrotech.io/subjective- timeperception

    1862.pdf49th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2018 (LPI Contrib. No. 2083)

    http://www.lunarclock.org