Sciences de l'Ingenieur 1ste

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Transcript of Sciences de l'Ingenieur 1ste

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    UEIGHEGU MG @'IHBGHIGWQ

    SSrrgglliirrggjjhhhhggmmuueeyyee`ggmmggAAjjeeeejj`jjuurrjjtt

    Ueighegs gt ]genhd`dbigs `getriqugs (U])

    @GU JW]GWQU

    [email protected] LILDWHI [email protected] NJUUJHIhspgetgur mg Bhig G`getriqug

    NJHJFI JNLGMSrdfgssgur m'G`getrdhiqug

    @JKDWJM QJENIMSrdfgssgur jbrb mg Bhig G`getriqug

    QLIENJ [email protected] mg Edhstruetidh Lejhiqug

    [email protected] [email protected]

    Srdfgssgur mg Fjariejtidh lejhiqug

    GQQJNDW]I [email protected] m'G`getrdhiqug

    LDWKIAI [email protected] mg Edhstruetidh Lejhiqug

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    Engr `getgur,

    Edllg pdur `gs jutrgs ljtirgs m'ghsgibhglght, `g lihistrg mg `muejtidhhjtidhj`g, mg `'ghsgibhglght suprigur, mg `j fdrljtidh mgs ejmrgs gt mg `jrgengreng seightifiqug j drbjhis uh edhedurs pdur `g ljhug` sed`jirg mgs Ueighegsmg `ihbhigur mg `j :grg U]G.

    Eg prdkgt m'duvrjbg, gst `g rsu`tjt mg `j pjrtieipjtidh eg edhedurs mdht `ghdlarg mg ejhmimjts tjit mg 1. Ljis lj`ngurgusglght, jueuh mg egs 1 ejhmimjts h'jrussi.

    J`drs mjhs `'jasgheg prgsqug srg m'uh ljhug` pdur hds `vgs mg `j :grg U]Gpdur `j rghtrg 1336/1332, hdus jvdhs kub adh mg miffusgr hdtrg trjvji` mjhs `g autgt `g sdunjit qug hds prdfgssgurs gt hds `vgs gh tirght prdfit.

    Hdus hdtdhs qug ;

    @j mgrhirg rvisidh mg hdtrg trjvji` tjit eg``g qug hdus jvdhs fjitgjvjht `'ghvdi mg hdtrg trjvji` ju kury (11/37/1336) ?

    @g hdlarg mg pjbgs fix pjr `g edhedurs qui gst mg 1:6, hdus jvrjilght bh, ejr m'jprs hdtrg ldmgstg gxprigheg, uh tg` duvrjbggh gxibg ju ldihs 173 ?

    Ui vdus kubgz adh mg hdus fjirg uhg mg vds preigusgs rgljrqugs, h'nsitgzpjs `g fjirg, ejr g``g edhtriaugrj edrribgr uhg vghtug``g grrgur, jl`idrgr uhg

    pjrtig, ghedurjbgr `gs jutgurs, gte.

    Ghfih mjhs `jttghtg muh ljhug` dffieig`, hdus gsprdhs qug egttg vgrsidh`getrdhiqug mg eg ljhug` vdus sgrj uti`g gt vdus pdussgrj engrengr p`us, ejredllg dh `'j mk sibhj`, `gs 1:6 pjbgs ilpdsgs pjr `g ejnigr mgs enjrbgs muedhedurs hdus dht edhtrjihts mg fjirg mgs endix

    @g 15/32/1336

    g-lji`(eddrmdhhjtgurs mg `'quipg pmjbdbiqug);

    g`.lilduhiCejrjlji`.edl jnlgmTnjhjfiClghjrj.lj

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    JVJH]-SQDSDU

    Mjhs hdtrg ghvirdhhglght qudtimigh, dh uti`isg mg p`us gh p`us mgs systlgs mdht `j edlp`gxit gxibg uhgmljreng m'tumg strueturg fdhmg sur `j tndrig mgs systlgs. Sdur jadrmgr mg tg`s systlgs, i` fjut ;

    Wh lihilul mg edhhjissjhegs du uhg eu`turg tgenhd`dbiqug mg ajsg, gh tjhtqu'uti`isjtgur ? Gt mgs edlptghegs p`urimiseip`ihjirgs ilp`iqujht uhg edlprnghsidh jpprdfdhmig mgs

    priheipgs seightifiqugs gt tgenhiqugs sdus-kjeghts, gh tjht qug edhegptgur-rj`isjtgur.

    @'ghsgibhglght mgs Ueighegs mg `'ihbhigur jppdrtg j`drs `gs edhegpts `lghtjirgs pdur jadrmgr `gssystlgs. I` pgrlgt mg ;

    Fjirg meduvrir `'`vg `gs edhstitujhts mgs mivgrs enjlps tgenhd dbiqugs pdur `'jimgr ligux jffirlgr sdh prdkgt pgrsdhhg` ?

    Mvg`dppgr engz `'`vg `gs edlptghegs mg rjisdhhglght, mg edlluhiejtidh,m'gxprgssidh, m'drbjhisjtidh mg trjvji` gt mg rgengreng ltndmiqug ?

    Mvg`dppgr engz `'`vg `gs ejpjeits m'jutd jpprghtissjbg.

    @'ghsgibhglght mgs Ueighegs mg `'ihbhigur privi`big `'jequisitidh mg edhhjissjhegs b`daj`gs pjr jpprdengihmuetivg gt gh prdlduvjht `'uti`isjtidh mgs hduvg``gs tgenhd`dbigs ihfdrljtiqugs. I` sg ajsg sur mgs prdmuits-suppdrt qui pguvght trg jussi aigh mg `'ghvirdhhglght qudtimigh mg `'`vg qug mg `'ghvirdhhglght ihmustrig`[email protected] prdmuit-suppdrt lgt gh vimgheg priheipj`glght ;

    Whg jpprdeng fdhetidhhg``g rpdhmjht `j qugstidh "J qudi sgrt `g prdmuit 4" ? Whg jpprdeng tgenhd dbiqug rpdhmjht `j qugstidh "Edllght gst edhstruit `g prdmuit 4" ? Whg jpprdeng pnysiqug rpdhmjht `j qugstidh "Edllght `g prdmuit sg edlpdrtg-t-i` 4".

    Egs miffrghtgs jpprdenght sg edhkubught trs aigh jvge `j mljreng mg prdkgt qui gst fdrtglght edhsgi``gpdur `j quj`it m'ghsgibhglght qu'g``g prdeurg gh fjvdrisjht `'jutdhdlig, `j rgengreng, `g trjvji` gh quipg, `jedlluhiejtidh, gte.

    @j strueturg mg egt duvrjbg gst `g rgf`gt mg egt jspget p`urimiseip`ihjirg qu'dffrg egt ghsgibhglght. I` gstedhfdrlg jux mirgetivgs gt prdbrjllgs dffieig`s. I` gst jx priheipj`glght sur = uhits ;

    Whit : ; Qg`jtivg `j enjhg m'hgrbig, g` g trjitg mgs fdhetidhs j ilghtgr,mistriaugr gt edhvgrtir ?

    Whit 1 ; Qg`jtivg `j enjhg m'ihfdrljtidh, g``g trjitg mgs fdhetidhs jequrir,trjitgr gt edlluhiqugr ?

    Whit 5 ; Qg`jtivg `j enjhg m'hgrbig, g``g trjitg mg `j fdhetidh trjhslgttrg ? Whit = ; Srdkgt ghejmr trjitjht mg `'jhj`ysg fdhetidhhg``g, `dbieig`s mg EJD gt

    mirgetivgs pdur `j bgstidh muh prdkgt.

    Smjbdbiquglght, egs 5 uhits edhstitught `gs eghtrgs m'ihtrt edbhitifs gt ltndmd`dbigs qui ;

    drbjhisg gt strueturg `gs prda`lgs rsdumrg pdur `'jequisitidh mgs edhhjissjhegs ? mtgrlihg `gs jetivits prdpdsgs pdssia`gs prdpdsgr jux `vgs.

    @GU JW]GWQU

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    =

    EDLLGH] W][email protected] EG [email protected] 4

    Zujtrg uhits

    Whit JME qui merit `gs fdhetidhs J`ilghtgr,Mistriaugr gtEdhvgrtir mg `j enjhg hgrbig muhsystlg

    Whit J]E qui merit `gs fdhetidhs Jequrir,]rjitgr gt Edlluhiqugr mg `j enjhgmihfdrljtidh muh systlg

    Whit ]qui merit `j fdhetidh ]rjhslgttrg mg `jenjhg mhgrbig

    Whit Srdkgt qui merit `'jhj`ysg fdhetidhhg``g,`gs `dbieig`s mg EJD gt `gs mirgetivgs pdur prdkgt.

    Ihmgx(pjbgs 1:7 1:6)

    Udlljirg(pjbg 5)

    Drbjhisjtidh mg `duvrjbg

    Drbjhisjtidh muhg uhit

    Srsghtjtidh jvge `gs prrgquis(prglirg pjbg)

    Srsghtjtidh mg `j fdhetidh jvge `gsedlptghegs visgs gt `gs enjpitrgs ihe`us

    (mguxilg pjbg)

    Mvg`dppglght mg enjqug enjpitrgedhfdrllght ju prdbrjllg

    (p`usigurs pjbgs)

    Gxgreiegs rsd`us, gxgreiegs hdh rsd`us(: du 1 pjbgs)

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    W H I ] G J M E

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    ENJSI]QG : ; @GHGQBIG [email protected]]QIZWG ............................................................................................::

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    ENJSI]QG 1 ; @GU BQJHMGWQU [email protected]]QIZWGU ....................................................................................:2:. BQJHMGWQU EJQJE]GQIU]IZWGU LIUGU GH KGW ............................................................................................. :21. [email protected]]J]IDH EDH]IHWG U][email protected] ........................................................................................................ 13

    ENJSI]QG 5 ; UGEWQI]G MGU AIGHU G] MGU SGQUDHHGU ........................................................................1=:. GFFG]U [email protected] MW EDWQJH] [email protected]]QIZWG ...................................................................................... 1=1. ]GHUIDH @ILI]G MG UGEWQI]G ................................................................................................................. 175. EDH]JE] MIQGE] G] IHMIQGE] G] SQD]GE]IDH JUUDEIGG ............................................................................... 17

    ENJSI]QG = ; @' GHGQBIG SHGWLJ]IZWG ......................................................................................... 12:. EDHU]I]W]IDH MWHG IHU][email protected]@J]IDH SHGWLJ]IZWG ....................................................................................... 121. SQDMWE]IDH MG @GHGQBIG SHGWLJ]IZWG ................................................................................................. 12

    5. SQIHEISGU SNYUIZWGU .......................................................................................................................... 1>

    FDHE]IDH MIU]QIAWGQ

    ENJSI]QG : ; @GU SQGJE]IDHHGWQU [email protected]]QIZWGU ............................................................................. 53:. @G [email protected] ........................................................................................................................................ 531. @G EDH]JE]GWQ ................................................................................................................................ 515. @G UGE]IDHHGWQ ................................................................................................................................ 55=. @GU [email protected] .................................................................................................................................... 5=7. @G [email protected] ]NGQLIZWG .......................................................................................................................... 5=

    ENJSI]QG 1 ; NJENGWQ UGQIG / VJQIJ]GWQ MG VI]GUUG IHMWU][email protected] .......................................................52:. SQIHEISG MG FDHE]IDHHGLGH] ............................................................................................................... 521. VJQIJ]GWQU IHMWU][email protected] SDWQ LD]GWQ J EDWQJH] EDH]IHW ......................................................................... 59

    ENJSI]QG 5 ; @GU SQGJE]IDHHGWQU SHGWLJ]IZWGU .......................................................................... =::. FDHE]IDH ........................................................................................................................................ =:1. EDHU]I]WJH]U M'WH MIU]QIAW]GWQ .......................................................................................................... =:5. @GU SQIHEISJW^ MIU]QIAW]GWQU SHGWLJ]IZWGU ........................................................................................... =:=. @GU MIUSDUI]IFU MG EDLLJHMG .............................................................................................................. =17. [email protected]]IDH; SQGUUG SHGWLJ]IZWG ........................................................................................................ =5

    FDHE]IDH EDHVGQ]IQ

    ENJSI]QG : ; EDHVGQ]IUUGWQ [email protected]]QDLGEJHIZWG ...........................................................................=6:. DQBJHIUJ]IDH MG @ J LJENIHG ............................................................................................................... =61. SQIHEISG MG FDHE]IDHHGLGH] ............................................................................................................... =65. [email protected] [email protected]]QIZWG [email protected] MW LD]GWQ J EDWQJH] EDH]IHW ......................................................................... =>=. MGLJQQJBG MW LD]GWQ J EDWQJH] EDH]IHW ............................................................................................ =>7. [email protected] MGU SWIUUJHEG .......................................................................................................................... =9

    6. [email protected]]G MG @J LJENIHG J EDWQJH] EDH]IHW ...................................................................................... =92. [email protected]]J]IDH MW LD]GWQ ................................................................................................................... 73>. FDHE]IDHHGLGH] J VI]GUUG [email protected] ..................................................................................................... 73

    ENJSI]QG 1 ; @GU JE]IDHHGWQU SHGWLJ]IZWGU ...............................................................................71:. @GU VGQIHU ....................................................................................................................................... 711. @G BGHGQJ]GWQ MG VIMG DW VGH]WQI ....................................................................................................... 7=

    ENJSI]QG 5 ; JW]QGU ]YSGU MG EDHVGQUIDH ...................................................................................76:. EDHVGQUIDH GHGQBIG [email protected]]QIZWG / GHGQBIG @WLIHGWUG ............................................................................... 761. EDHVGQUIDH GHGQBIG [email protected]]QIZWG / GHGQBIG ]NGQLIZWG .............................................................................. 725. EDHVGQUIDH GHGQBIG [email protected]]QIZWG / GHGQBIG ENILIZWG ................................................................................. 72

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    FDHE]IDH JEZWGQIQ

    ENJSI]QG : ; @GU EJS]GWQU ........................................................................................................6:

    :. MGFIHI]IDH ...................................................................................................................................... 6:1. HJ]WQG MG @'IHFDQLJ]IDH FDWQHIG SJQ WH EJS]GWQ ................................................................................... 6:5. EJQJ]GQIU]IZWGU M WH EJS]GWQ ............................................................................................................ 61=. EJS]GWQU @DBIZWGU (]DW] DW QIGH ; ]DQ) ................................................................................................ 617. EJS]GWQU HWLGQIZWGU ........................................................................................................................ 66

    ENJSI]QG 1 ; EDHMI]IDHHGLGH] MW [email protected] ...................................................................................69:. IH]QDMWE]IDH .................................................................................................................................. 691. LIUG GH FDQLG SJQ EDLSJQJ]GWQ WH UG [email protected] ............................................................................................ 2:

    ENJSI]QG 5 ; IH]GQFJEG GH GH]QGG .............................................................................................2=:. IH]GQFJEG NDLLG/LJENIHG (INL) .......................................................................................................... 2=1. [email protected]]IDH [email protected] ....................................................................................................................... 27

    FDHE]IDH ]QJI]GQ

    ENJSI]QG : ; QGSQGUGH]J]IDH G] EDMJBG MG @'IHFDQLJ]IDH AIHJIQG...................................................2>:. @GU UYU]GLGU MG HWLGQJ]IDH ............................................................................................................... 2>1. EDMJBG MG @'IHFDQLJ]IDH AIHJIQG ......................................................................................................... 295. HD]IDHU M'JQI]NLG]IZWG AIHJIQG .......................................................................................................... >:

    ENJSI]QG 1 ; FDHE]IDHU EDLAIHJ]DIQGU MG AJUG ...........................................................................>5:. DSGQJ]IDHU [email protected] [email protected]]JIQGU .................................................................................................. >51. JW]QGU DSGQJ]IDHU ........................................................................................................................... >75. QGSQGUGH]J]IDH MGU FDHE]IDHU @DBIZWGU ............................................................................................... >2

    ENJSI]QG 5 ; [email protected]]IDH MGU FDHE]IDHU @DBIZWGU ....................................................................>9:. LG]NDMG [email protected] ......................................................................................................................... >91. LG]NDMG BQJSNIZWG .......................................................................................................................... >9

    ENJSI]QG = ; FDHE]IDHU EDLAIHJ]DIQGU JVJHEGGU ........................................................................ 91:. @GU MGEDMGWQU ................................................................................................................................. 911. @G [email protected]][email protected] GWQ ............................................................................................................................... 9=5. @G [email protected]][email protected]^GWQ ............................................................................................................................ 97=. @'JMMI]IDHHGWQ ................................................................................................................................. 967. @G EDLSJQJ]GWQ ..............................................................................................................................:33

    ENJSI]QG 7 ; HD]IDH MG LGLDIQG .............................................................................................. :31:. EIQEWI] LGLDIQG GH ][email protected] [email protected]]QIZWG .........................................................................................:311. EIQEWI] LGLDIQG GH ][email protected] [email protected]]QDHIZWG .....................................................................................:31

    ENJSI]QG 6 ; FDHE]IDHU UGZWGH][email protected]@GU ..................................................................................... :3=:. @GU [email protected] ..................................................................................................................................:3=1. @GU EDLS]GWQU ................................................................................................................................:325. @GU QGBIU]QGU .................................................................................................................................::3=. @GU LGLDIQGU ..................................................................................................................................::1

    ENJSI]QG 2 ; [email protected]@GU @DBIZWGU ]]@ G] ELDU ............................................................................. ::2:. HD]IDH MG [email protected]@G MG EIQEWI] @DBIZWG ..................................................................................................::21. @GU VJQIJH]GU ]GE [email protected] MGU [email protected]@GU @DBIZWGU ]]@ G] ELDU ............................................................::25. @J U]QWE]WQG MG AJUG MGU [email protected]@GU @DBIZWGU ]]@ G] ELDU .........................................................................::>=. @GU SJQJLG]QGU [email protected]]QIZWGU MGU EIQEWI]U @DBIZWGU .................................................................................::>7. @GU SGQFDQLJHEGU MYHJLIZWGU MGU EIQEWI]U @DBIZWGU ..............................................................................::96. SGQFDQLJHEGU EDLSJQGGU MGU MIFFGQGH]GU [email protected]@GU ]]@ G] ELDU ................................................................:132. @GU MIFFGQGH]U G]JBGU MG UDQ]IG .........................................................................................................:13>. IH]GQFJEJBG MGU EIQEWI]U @DBIZWGU .....................................................................................................:1:

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    ENJSI]QG > ; ]GLSDQIUJ]GWQU J AJUG MG EIQEWI]U IH]GBQGGU .......................................................... :15:. @G EIQEWI] MG AJUG ; @G EIQEWI] QE .......................................................................................................:151. SQIHEISG MG AJUG ..............................................................................................................................:1=5. @G ]GLSDQIUJ]GWQ HG777 ....................................................................................................................:1==. LDMGU MG FDHE]IDHHGLGH] MW HG777 ....................................................................................................:1=

    ENJSI]QG 9 ; EIQEWI]U @DBIZWGU [email protected] ........................................................................ :12:. SQIHEISGU G] ]GENHIZWGU MG AJUG .........................................................................................................:121. @J [email protected]]IDH MGU [email protected] ..................................................................................................................:1>5. @GU [email protected] ([email protected] JQQJY @DBIE)................................................................................................... :1>=. @GU [email protected] (BGHGQIE JQQJY @DBIE) ............................................................................................................:197. SQDBQJLLJ]IDH MGU [email protected] ....................................................................................................................:19

    ENJSI]QG :3 ; @G BQJFEG] ....................................................................................................... :51:. ]YSGU MG BQJFEG] ............................................................................................................................ :511. [email protected]]U MG AJUG ............................................................................................................................:5=5. @GU [email protected] M'[email protected]]IDH M'WH BQJFEG] ...................................................................................................:5==. U]QWE]WQGU MG AJUG M'WH BQJFEG] .......................................................................................................:57

    ENJSI]QG :: ; JW]DLJ]G [email protected] IHMWU][email protected] .................................................................... :59:. @DBIZWG [email protected] ...............................................................................................................................:591. JW]DLJ]G [email protected] IHMWU][email protected] ...................................................................................................:=3

    FDHE]IDH EDLLWHIZWGQ

    ENJSI]QG : ; IH]GQFJEG GH UDQ]IG ............................................................................................ :=>:. IH]GQFJEG NDLLG/LJENIHG (INL) .........................................................................................................:=>1. [email protected]]IDH [email protected] ......................................................................................................................:=9

    ENJSI]QG 1 ; @IJIUDH [email protected]@[email protected] G] @IJIUDH UGQIG ......................................................................... :7::. @IJIUDH [email protected]@[email protected] ............................................................................................................................:7:1. @IJIUDH UGQIG ..................................................................................................................................:7:5. HDQLG QU151 .................................................................................................................................. :71=. HDQLG QU=>7 ..................................................................................................................................:75

    W H I ] G ]

    ENJSI]QG : ; [email protected]]GU UWQ @G MGUUIH ]GENHIZWG ...................................................................... :72:. SQIHEISJW^ ]YSGU MG MGUUIHU IHMWU][email protected] ...............................................................................................:721. FDQLJ]U ........................................................................................................................................:725. [email protected]]U SGQLJHGH]U ......................................................................................................................:7>=. @'[email protected]@G .......................................................................................................................................:7>7. @G EJQ]DWENG .................................................................................................................................:7>6. [email protected]]WQG ................................................................................................................................:792. GEQI]WQG .......................................................................................................................................:79>. @GU ]QJI]U ......................................................................................................................................:79

    ENJSI]QG 1 ; ]QJEGU BGDLG]QIZWGU IH]GQUGE]IDHU .................................................................... :63:. ]QJEGU BGDGLG]QIZWGU .....................................................................................................................:631. IHGQUGE]IDHU ..................................................................................................................................:6:

    ENJSI]QG 5 ; QGSQGUGH]J]IDH BGDLG]QIZWG MGU SIGEGU ................................................................ :61:. SGQUSGE]IVG [email protected] ......................................................................................................................:611. SQDKGE]IDHU G] VWGU ........................................................................................................................:615. EDWSGU [email protected] NJENWQGU ................................................................................................................:6==. UGE]IDH .........................................................................................................................................:677. HD]IDHU UWQ @G [email protected]]JBG ...................................................................................................................:66

    ENJSI]QG = ; G^GEW]IDH BQJSNIZWG MG @J ED]J]IDH .................................................................... :6>:. [email protected] ........................................................................................................................................... :6>1. G^GEW]IDH BQJSNIZWG MG @J ED]J]IDH ..................................................................................................:6>

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    ENJSI]QG 7 ; QGSQGUGH]J]IDH [email protected]............................ :23:. [email protected] [email protected] .......................................................................................................................:231. EQGJ]IDH MGU [email protected] [email protected]]JIQGU ...................................................................................................:2:5. EQGJ]IDH M'WHG SIGEG [email protected] ...............................................................................................................:2:=. EQGJ]IDH M'WH [email protected] [email protected] ........................................................................................................:21

    ENJSI]QG 6 ; ][email protected] G] JKWU]GLGH]U ................................................................................. :2=:. ][email protected] MILGH][email protected]@GU .............................................................................................................:2=1. JKWU]GLGH]U ..................................................................................................................................:2=5. ][email protected] BGDLG]QIZWGU ................................................................................................................:27

    ENJSI]QG 2 ; ED]J]IDH FDHE][email protected]@G ..................................................................................... :22:. MGFIHI]IDHU ...................................................................................................................................:221. LG]NDMG SDWQ ]QJEGQ WHG ENJIHG MG ED]GU ..........................................................................................:2>

    ENJSI]QG > ; @GU LJ]GQIJW^ .................................................................................................... :29:. HD]IDHU [email protected] ..........................................................................................................................:291. MGUIBHJ]IDH MGU LJ]GQIJW^ ...............................................................................................................:>35. LIUG GH WVQG MGU LJ]GQIJW^ ............................................................................................................:>:

    ENJSI]QG 9 ; @IJIUDHU G] UENGLJ]IUJ]IDH .................................................................................. :>=:. HD]IDH MG FDHE]IDHU LGEJHIZWGU .......................................................................................................:>=1. FDHE]IDH @IJIUDH .............................................................................................................................:>=5. UENGLJ]IUJ]IDH ..............................................................................................................................:>6

    ENJSI]QG :3 ; @IJIUDHU GHEJU]QGLGH]U ..................................................................................... :>>:. MGFIHI]IDH .....................................................................................................................................:>>1. LDYGHU [email protected] MGLDH][email protected] .....................................................................................................:>>5. LDYGHU [email protected] HDH MGLDH][email protected] (SGQLJHGH]U) ............................................................................:93

    ENJSI]QG :: ; @WAQIFIEJ]IDH G]JHENGI]G ................................................................................. :91:. @WAQIFIEJ]IDH .................................................................................................................................:911. G]JHENGI]G ....................................................................................................................................:95

    ENJSI]QG :1 ; FDHE]IDH BWIMJBG ............................................................................................ :97:. BWIMJBG GH QD]J]IDH .......................................................................................................................:971. BWIMJBG GH ][email protected]]IDH ...................................................................................................................:96

    W H I ] G S Q D K G ] G H E J M Q G

    ENJSI]QG : ; [email protected] FDHE][email protected]@G ...................................................................................... :99:. [email protected] FDHE][email protected]@G G^]GQHG .........................................................................................................:991- [email protected] FDHE][email protected]@G IH]GQHG .........................................................................................................1315- U]QWE]WQG FDHE][email protected]@G M'WH UYU]GLG ...............................................................................................137

    ENJSI]QG 1 ; EDHEGS]IDH JUUIU]GG SJQ DQMIHJ]GWQ (EJD) .............................................................1:3

    ENJSI]QG 5 ; SQDKG] GHEJMQG - MIQGE]IVGU ................................................................................. 1:::. MIQGE]IVGU .....................................................................................................................................1::1. G^[email protected] MG SQDSDUI]IDHU MG SG ..........................................................................................................1:15. G^[email protected] MG UYU]G LGU .......................................................................................................................1:5

    [email protected] ...................................................................................................................... 1:7

    IHMG^ .................................................................................................................................. 1:6

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    W H I ] G JM E 9

    W HI ] J MEJ ` i l g h t g r - M i s t r i a u g r - E d h v g r t i r

    S Q G Q G Z W I U

    Edhhjissjhegs bhrj`gs jequisgs mjhs `ghsgibhglght ]rdhe Edlluh.

    Edhegpts mjhj ysg fdhetidhhg``g ;

    Uystlg ? Fdhetidh b`daj`g gt fdhetidhs mg sgrviegs ? Fdhetidhs tgenhiqugs, FJU], UJM], gte.

    S Q U G H ] J ] I D H

    Sdur jbir sur `j ljtirg m'uvrg, uh systlg jutdljtis j agsdih mhgrbig, qui suairjmg hdlargux trjitglghts pdur trg jmjpts `j hjturg mg `'jetidh sur `j ljtirg m'uvrg.

    @uhit JME trjitg mdhe mg egs jspgets qui pguvght trg ldm`iss pjr `gs fdhetidhsbhriqugs, e'gst mirg qui s'jpp`iqught sur `j p`upjrt mgs systlgs ? i` s'jbit mgs fdhetidhs ;

    J`ilghtgr ?

    Mistriaugr ?

    Edhvgrtir ?

    Brjhmgurspnysiqugs

    lgsurgr

    h i t J M Ehgrbigsmghtrg

    JEZWGQIQ QJI]GQ EDLLWHI WGQ

    JBIQ

    njhg mihfdrljtidh

    hfdrljtidhsmgstihgs mjutrgs

    systlgs gt juxihtgrfjegs N/L

    Drmrgs

    hfdrljtidhsissugs mjutrgs

    systlgs gtIhtgr jegs N/L

    @ILGH]GQ MIU]QIAWGQ DHVGQ IQ ]QJHULG]]QG

    jtirg m'uvrggh ghtrg

    jtirg m'uvrg ghsdrtig

    Enjhg mhgrbig

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr:3

    Gh bhrj`, `gs systlgs jutdljtiss lgttght gh uvrg p`usigurs typgs mhgrbig. @gshgrbigs priheipj`glght gxp`ditgs sdht `hgrbig `getriqug gt `hgrbig lejhiqug sdus`gurs miffrghtgs fdrlgs. Dh hdtg gh pjrtieu`igr ;

    @j sdureg mhgrbig `getriqug, qui breg `j sdup`gssg mg sgs ltndmgs mgbhrjtidh gt mg trjhspdrt, mglgurg uhg riengssg ihbj`g. I` hgst pjssurprghjht mdhe mg rgljrqugr qug `j`ilghtjtidh gh hgrbig `getriqug gst`jrbglght jmdptg jussi aigh gh li`igu ihmustrig` qugh li`igu mdlgstiqug ?

    @j sdureg mhgrbig phguljtiqug qui gst jussi `jrbglght prsghtg mjhs `gssystlgs ihmustrig`s. Egttg hgrbig gst mjhs `j p`upjrt mgs ejs bhrg pjrtirmg `hgrbig `getriqug.

    @j pdsitidh mg `j fdhetidh J`ilghtjtidh gh hgrbig mjhs uhg enjhg mhgrbig, jihsi qug sj

    fdhetidh b`daj`g sdht rgprsghtgs pjr `j fiburg suivjhtg ;

    Ghgrbig Udureg mj`ilghtjtidh GhgrbigG`getriqug Qsgju `getriqug, pi`gs, gte. G`getriqugG`getriqug Edlprgssgur Shguljtiqug

    WHI]G JME

    FDHE]IDH

    J @ I L G H ] G Q

    SQGUGH]J]IDH

    EDLSG]GHEGU J]]GHMWGU

    pjrtir mg tdut du pjrtig muh prdmuit suppdrt jvge sdh ejnigr mgs enjrbgs gt sdh mdssigrtgenhiqug ;

    Imghtifigr `gs edhstitujhtsmu rsgju mj`ilghtjtidh Gxprilgr `gsejrjetristiqugsmgs edhstitujhts mu rsgju mj`ilghtjtidh

    ENJSI]QGU [email protected] MJHU @J FDHE]IDH [email protected]]GQ

    J`ilghtjtidh `getriqug Brjhmgurs `getriqugs ejrjetristiqugs Ueurit mgs aighs gt mgs pgrsdhhgs J`ilghtjtidh phguljtiqug

    [email protected]]GQ MIU]QIAWGQ EDHVGQ]IQ

    WHI]G JME

    ]QJHULG]]QG JBIQ

    Ljtirgmuvrg gh

    ghtrg

    Ljtirg

    muvrg ghsdrtig

    hgrbigmghtrg

    J`ilghtgrgh hgrbig

    ENJHG MHGQBIG

    hgrbigmghtrg

    hgrbigmg sdrtig

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    E n j p itrg : @ h grbig `ge tr iq u g ::

    ENJSI]QG :

    @GHGQBIG [email protected]]QIZWGIH]QDMWE]IDH ;

    @'hgrbig `getriqug prdvight muhg trjhsfdrljtidh m'hgrbig lejhiqug, ljbhtiqug, eniliqug du`ulihgusg. Egttg sdureg mhgrbig pgut sg prsghtgr sdus fdrlg muhg sdureg mg tghsidh edhtihug duj`tgrhjtivg. @uhit muhg tghsidh `getriqug gst `g Vd`t (V).

    :. ][email protected] MW QGUGJW [email protected]]QIZWG ;

    @g systlg `getriqug edlprghm mgs sitgs mg prdmuetidh (eghtrj`gs hue`jirgs, tngrliqugs,nymrju`iqugs, du prdmuetidh meghtrj`isg ; d`ighhgs, pgtitg nymrju`iqug, edbhrjtidh, gte.), gt mgs`igux mg edhsdlljtidh (edlluhgs, ghtrgprisgs, gte.), rg`is pjr `g rsgju `getriqug (trjhspdrt gtmistriautidh). Eg mgrhigr j pdur r`g mjenglihgr `hgrbig vgrs `gs `igux mg edhsdlljtidh, jvge mgstjpgs m`vjtidh gt mg ajissg mu hivgju mg tghsidh mjhs mgs pdstgs mg trjhsfdrljtidh. @j tghsidh `jsdrtig mgs brjhmgs eghtrj`gs gst pdrtg =33 333 vd`ts pdur `ilitgr `gs pgrtgs mhgrbig sdus fdrlg mgenj`gur mjhs `gs ea`gs ? eg sdht `gs pgrtgs pjr gffgt Kdu`g .

    Ghsuitg, `j tghsidh gst prdbrgssivglght rmuitg ju p`us prs mg `j edhsdlljtidh, pdur jrrivgr juxmiffrghts hivgjux mg tghsidh juxqug s sdht rjeedrms `gs edhsdlljtgurs (=33 333 vd`ts, 117 333 vd`ts, 93333 vd`ts, 65 333 vd`ts, 13 333 vd`ts, =33 vd`ts du 153 vd`ts suivjht `gurs agsdihs gh puissjheg).

    @'DHG (Dffieg Hjtidhj` mG`getrieit) jssurg egttg fdurhiturg pjr `'gxp`ditjtidh mirgetg m'uhits mgprdmuetidh jihsi qug pjr `gs duvrjbgs qu'i` j edhfis mgs dprjtgurs privs mjhs `g ejmrg mg edhtrjts mgprdmuetidh edhegssidhhg`.

    Gh tgrlg mg prdmuetidh `g rsgju hjtidhj` j pdur lissidh mg ;

    jssurgr uhg bgstidh dptilj`g mu pjre mg prdmuetidh ? vgi``gr `j sjtisfjetidh mg `j mgljhmg gh hgrbig `getriqug gxprilg pjr `g Mispjtenihb Hjtidhj ,

    gt egei mjhs `gs lgi``gurgs edhmitidhs mg seurit, mg rghmglght, mg mispdhiai`it gt mg edt.

    @g pjre hjtidhj` mg prdmuetidh gst edlpds mg ldyghs mg prdmuetidh tngrliqug, nymrju`iqug gtd`ighhg.

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr:1

    J `j fih 1337, eg pjre sg edlpdsg edllg suit ;

    Suissjheg ihstj``g gh LR

    16 usihgs nymrju`iqugs : 167

    Utjtidh Sdlpjbg gt turaihjbg mJfdurgr* =6=

    7 eghtrj`gs tngrliqugs vjpgur 1 5>7

    enjradh :2>7

    Fidu` 6336 eghtrj`gs turaihgs bjz 6:7

    Eye`g edlaih mg ]JNJMMJQ] =33

    ]ngrliqug migsg` 69

    ]dtj` ]ngrliqug 5 =69

    Gd`igh (mdht 73 LR mg j EGM*) 75,9

    ]dtj` DHG 7 171

    * rbidh mgrrjenimij.** Edlit gurdpghhg mg mistriautidh.

    HD]J ; @g Rjtt (R) gst `uhit mg `j puissjheg. Whg sdureg mg puissjheg :oR pgut j`ilghtgr, gh llgtglps, mix jlpdu`gs mg :33R enjeuhg.

    @g brjpniqug suivjht rgprsghtg `jsjtisfjetidh gh hgrbig `getriqug mue`ight ljrdejih. Whg pjrt mg egttgedhsdlljtidh gst jssurg pjr `gseghtrj`gs mg prdmuetidh nymrju`iqug, uhgjutrg pjr `gs eghtrj`gs mg prdmuetidhtngrliqug, uhg jutrg pjr `gs tgenhiqugshduvg``gs (d ighs, sd`jirgs, gte.) ? `g

    rgstg mg `j mgljhmg gst ilpdrt mg`Whidh Gurdpgh.

    1. ]YSGU MG EGH][email protected] ;

    1.:. Mfihitidhs bhrj`gs ;

    1.:.:. ]uraihg ;

    E'gst uh ldtgur rdtjtif qui edhvgrtit `hgrbig muh edurjht mgju, mg vjpgur du mg bjz gh hgrbiglejhiqug. Mjhs `g mdljihg mg `j prdmuetidh dh pgut mdhhgr titrg mgxglp`g ;

    ]uraihg pg`tdh ]uraihg vjpgur

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    E n j p itrg : @ h grbig `ge tr iq u g :5

    1.:.1. j`tgrhjtgur ;

    Egst `drbjhg qui trjhsfdrlg `hgrbig mg `j rdtjtidh gh uhg hgrbig `getriqug ;

    @'j`tgrhjtgur fdurhit uhg `ibhg trifi`jirg(sibhj` tripnjs) mdht `gs tghsidhs sdht mgssihusdmgs mpnjsgs mg :13 gt mdht `jvj`gur gffiejeg gst mg [email protected] frqugheg mgs tghsidhs gst mg 73Nz ?

    egttg frqugheg (f) gst fixg pjr `j vitgssgmg rdtjtidh mg `j turaihg (h) gt `g hdlargmgs p`gs (S) mg `j tgrhjtgur sg`dh `jrg`jtidh ;

    f < p x h.Jvge ;

    f gh Nz (Ngrtz) h gh trs/s (tdurs/sgedhmg)

    Gxglp`g ; h

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr:=

    @gs usihgs mg pdlpjbg/turaihjbg; @gs stjtidhs mg trjhsfgrt m'hgrbig pjr pdlpjbgfdhetidhhght sur `g priheipg mu rgeye`jbg mg `'gju pjr pdlpjbg ;

    ]uraihjbg ; `'j tgrhjtgur prdmuit mg `'hgrbig `getriqug. Sdlpjbg ; `j pdlpg edhsdllg mg `'hgrbig pdur rgldhtgr `'gju m'uh ajssih ihfrigur

    uh ajssih suprigur.

    @gs stjtidhs ljrldtriegs; qui gxp`ditght `j fdreg mg `j ljrr pdur ghtrjhgr `gs turaihgs.

    1.5. Ghgrbig mdribihg tngrliqug ;

    Mjhs eg typg mg eghtrj`g, `j enj`gur prdmuitg pjr `j edlaustidh muh edlaustia`g (enjradh, fug` ,gte.), prdmuit `vjpdrjtidh mg `gju. Egttg vjpgur sdus prgssidh pgrlgt mghtrjhgr uhg turaihg vjpgur gh rdtjtidh ;

    1.=. Ghgrbig mdribihg hue`jirg ;

    Whg eghtrj`g hue`jirg gst uhg eghtrj`g tngrliqug qui uti`isg `'hgrbig fdurhig pjr uh rjetgurhue`jirg. Eg rjetgur prdmuit uhg brjhmg qujhtit mg enj`gur qui gst ejptg pjr mg `'gju sdus prgssidheireu`jht mjhs `g eireuit priljirg (eireuit fgrl).

    Gxglp`g mg `j ljrr njutggr

    uraihg

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    E n j p itrg : @ h grbig `ge tr iq u g :7

    Sjr `'ihtgrlmijirg mu bhrjtgur mg vjpgur, `'gju sdus prgssidh mu eireuit priljirg edlluhiqug sjenj`gur `'gju m'uh mguxilg eireuit fgrl, `g eireuit sgedhmjirg. I` gst jihsi pdssia`g m'datghir mg `jvjpgur njutg prgssidh mjhs eg eireuit sgedhmjirg.

    @j prgssidh mg egttg vjpgur fjit tdurhgr brjhmg vitgssg uhg turaihg qui ghtrjhg g``g-llg uhj`tgrhjtgur qui prdmuit uhg tghsidh j`tgrhjtivg sihusdmj`g. J `j sdrtig mg `j turaihg `j vjpgur gstrgfrdimig pdur sg trjhsfdrlgr gh gju, puis rghvdyg mjhs `g bhrjtgur mg vjpgur.

    @g rgfrdimissglght mg `j vjpgur issug mg `j turaihg gst edhfi uhg tdur mg rgfrdimissglght du uhedurs m'gju ilpdrtjht.

    5. @GU UDWQEGU JW]DHDLGU ;

    5.:. Ghgrbig sd`jirg ;

    Dh mistihbug mgux typgs mg eghtrj`g gxp`ditjht `hgrbig mu sd`gi` ;

    Eghtrj`gs tngrldmyhjliqugs; @jedheghtrjtidh mu rjydhhglght sd`jirg pjr mgslirdirs pgrlgt mdatghir mgs tglprjturgs mg`drmrg mg =73E. Egttg tglprjturg pgrlgtmvjpdrgr `gju qui fjit tdurhgr mgs turaihgs.

    Eghtrj`gs pndtdvd`tjqugs du pndtdpi`gs;Mjhs egs eghtrj`gs mgs eg``u`gs pndtdvd`tjqugsuti isgs egt gffgt sdht mgs edlpdsjhts`getrdhiqugs sgli edhmuetgur ejpja`g mgmaitgr uh edurjht `getriqug mjhs uh eireuitgxtrigur, `drsqui s sdht e`jirs pjr `grjydhhglght sd`jirg.

    Eghtrj`g tngrldsd`jirg mg Jih Ahi Ljtnjr

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr:6

    5.1. Ghgrbig mu vght ;

    @hgrbig eihtiqug mu vght prdmuit `j rdtjtidh mgs p`gs muhgd`ighhg, qui gst uhg sdrtg mg brjhm ldu ih, qui jetidhhg`'j`tgrhjtgur. @gs rgssduregs mu vght sdht edhsimrja`gs ljisirrbu`irgs ghtrg `g kdur gt `j huit, ghtrg `nivgr gt `t ? egstpdurqudi, egttg sd`utidh rgstg dhrgusg.

    5.5. Brdupgs `getrdbhgs ;

    @gs brdupgs `getrdbhgs sdht mgs pgtits j`tgrhjtgurs mdht`ghtrjhglght gh rdtjtidh sg fjit gh bhrj`, pjr uh ldtgurtngrliqug (ldtgur Migsg` pjr gxglp`g). @j puissjheg gstbhrj`glght `ilitg qug`qugs mizjihgs mg oi`dwjtts.

    Egs brdupgs sdht bhrj`glght uti iss edllgj`ilghtjtidh mg sgedurs, j ilghtjtidh `getriqugihihtgrruptia`g mjhs `gs `dejux gxibgjht uhg edhtihuit mgsgrvieg tg` qug `gs npitjux.

    5.=. Si`gs gt jeeulu`jtgurs ;

    Sjrli `gs bhrjtgurs mg tghsidh edhtihug `gs p`us rghedhtrs mjhs `j prjtiqug qudtimighhg, dhtrduvg `gs pi`gs gt `gs ajttgrigs mjeeulu`jtgurs. Egttg sdureg rgprsghtg uhg trjhsfdrljtidh mg`hgrbig eniliqug gh hgrbig `getriqug.

    G ^ G Q E I E G Q G U D @ W

    Whg stjtidh mirribjtidh gst j`ilghtg pjr eg``u`gs sd`jirgs. Ujenjht qug `j stjtidh gst edhstitug pjr mguxpdlpgs mdht `j puissjheg mg enjeuhg gst 5oR gt mg rghmglght 95 %. @j tghsidh mj`ilghtjtidh hdlihj`ggst mg :33 V (egst `j tghsidh fdurhir ju brdupg pdlpg/edhvgrtissgur).Ujenjht qug enjqug eg``u`g `lghtjirg pgut fdurhir uhg puissjheg :R jvge uhg tghsidh :.17V ;

    :. Zug` gst `g hdlarg mg eg``u`gs pndtdvd tjqugs uti`isgr.1. Mdhhgr uh senlj mg arjhenglght mg egs eg``u`gs.5. Ui jirg muhg eg``u`g gst mg 7el1. Zug` gst `jirg tdtj` gh l1 deeup pjr `g pjhhgju sd`jirg.

    EDQQIBG;

    :. @g hdlarg mg eg``u gs uti`isgr gst ;H < `j puissjheg tdtj`g mgljhmg / `j puissjheg muhg eg``u`g.H < 6333 / : sdit 6333 eg``u`gs pndtdvd`tjqug.

    1. @j tghsidh qug mdit fdurhir `g pjhhgju gst W < :33V. Mdhe `g hdlarg mg eg``u`g lgttrggh srig gst ; Hs < :33/:.17 sdit >3 eg``u`gs.

    Dr dh mdit uti`isgr ju lihilul 6333 eg``u`gs pdur jssurgr `j puissjheg mgljhmg. Mdhe `ghdlarg mg rjhbgs (>3 eg``u`gs mjhs enjqug rjhb) lgttrg gh pjrj```g ; Hp < 6333/>3sdit 27 rjhbgs.

    5. @jirg tdtj`g deeupg pjr `g pjhhgju gst ; J < 6333 x 7 el1 < 53 333 el1, sdit J < 5 l1.

    Si`gs Jeeulu`jtgur

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    E n j p itrg 1 @ gs brj h m gu rs `ge tr iq u gs :2

    Enjpitrg 1

    @GU BQJHMGWQU [email protected]]QIZWGU:. BQJHMGWQU EJQJE]GQIU]IZWGU LIUGU GH KGW ;

    :.:. Hdtidh mu edurjht `getriqug ;

    @g mp`jeglght mgs `getrdhs `iargs mjhs uh eireuit`getriqug fgrl ghbghmrg eg qudh jppg``g uh edurjht`getriqug. @uhit mu edurjht `getriqug gst `Jlprg (J).

    :.1. Lgsurg mg edurjht `getriqug ;

    Dh lgsurg `g edurjht `getriqug pjr `uti isjtidh muh jlprgltrg. @jlprgltrg gst uh jppjrgi`qui mdit trg ldht gh srig mjhs uh eireuit edllg `g ldhtrg `j fiburg suivjhtg ;

    :.5. Hdtidh mg rsistjheg ;

    :.5.:. Sriheipg gt sylad`g ;

    Wh fi` edhmuetgur prsghtg uhg miffrgheg mg pdtghtig` (m.m.p) ghtrg sgs adrhgs `drsqui` gst trjvgrspjr uh edurjht `getriqug. Egei gst m sj rsistjheg ihtgrhg mdht `j vj`gur gst mdhhg pjr `jfdrlu`g ;

    jvge ; `; `dhbugur mu fi` ? U; sj sgetidh ? ; `j rsistivit (ejrjetristiqug mg `j hjturg mu edhmuetgur)

    :.5.1. @di mDnl ;

    Egttg `di gxprilg qug egrtjihs ljtrijux dht uhg rpdhsg `ihjirg ghedurjht uhg miffrgheg mg pdtghtig` ilpdsg. Ui dh edhsimrg uhgrsistjheg, hdt Q jvge sgs adrhgs uhg tghsidh W , g``g sgrjtrjvgrsg pjr uh edurjht I, tg` qug, qug`qug sdit `g tglps t, W gt Ivrifight tdukdurs `j rg`jtidh mg prdpdrtidhhj`it ;

    g g

    g

    g

    g

    W < Q . I

    Q < .` / U

    njrbg

    J

    Udureg

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr:>

    :.5.5. Jssdeijtidh mgs rsistjhegs ;

    Uuivjht qug mgs rsistjhegs sdht jssdeigs gh srig du gh pjrj```g, i` rsu`tg mg `gur jssdeijtidh uhgrsistjheg quivj`ghtg Qg mdht `j vj`gur mpghm mgs vj`gurs mgs miffrghtgs rsistjhegs jssdeigs.

    j. Jssdeijtidh srig ;

    @j rsistjheg quivj`ghtg mg mgux rsistjhegs gh srig gst `j sdllg mg egs mgux rsistjhegs.

    a. Jssdeijtidh gh pjrj```g ;

    @j rsistjheg quivj`ghtg mg mgux rsistjhegs gh pjrj```g gst tg` qug ;

    1::::

    QQQg

    :.5.=. Edmg mg edu`gurs ;

    Dh hg pgut pjs fjariqugr `gs rsistjhegs jvge tdutgs `gs vj`gurs pdssia`gs. @gs rsistjhegs sdhtfjariqugs gh brjhmgs srigs pjr `gs edhstruetgurs mgs edlpdsjhts `getrdhiqugs. Dh `gs fjariqugj`drs suivjht mgs vj`gurs hdrlj`isgs, qui eduvrght `jrbglght `gs agsdihs gh rsistjhegs. Egs vj`gurssdht ihmiqugs sur egs rsistjhegs sdus fdrlg mjhhgjux gh edu`gur suivjht `g edmg suivjht ;

    @j td`rjheg gst uh pdureghtjbg qui ihmiqug `j preisidh mg `j rsistjheg. Edhhjissjht `j vj`gur mgenjqug eniffrg dh pgut mtgrlihgr `j vj`gur mg `j rsistjheg edllg suit;

    Q < _(:gr eniffrg x :) + (1glg eniffrg x :3)\ x :3 Lu`tip`iejtgur `j td`rjheg gh.

    Qg < Q: + Q1

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    E n j p itrg 1 @ gs brj h m gu rs `ge tr iq u gs :9

    Gxglp`g ;Ej`eu` mg `j vj`gur m'uhg rsistjheg mdht `gs trdis edu`gurs sibhifiejtivgs sdht `g rdubg.

    Q < _ (1 x:) + (1 x :3) \ x :3 1 < 11 x :33 < 1,1 O

    @gs vj`gurs hdrlj`isgs mgs rsistjhegs sdht e`jssgs pjr mgs srigs mg vj`gurs hdtgs (G6, G:1, G1=du G=>), qui ihmiqught `g hdlarg mg vj`gurs mjhs uhg srig. Sjr gxglp`g, `gs vj`gurs mg `j srig G:1sdht ;

    :3 ? :1 ? :7 ? :> ? 11 ? 12 ? 55 ? 59 ? =2 ? 76 ? 6> ? >1

    ]dutgs `gs rsistjhegs mg `j srig G:1 sdht mgs lu`tip`gs du mgs sdus lu`tip`gs mg egs vj`gurs .Sjrgxglp`g, dh trduvg :,1 , :1 , :13, :.1O, :1O, :13O, :.1Lgt jihsi mg suitg.

    :.5.7. Qsistjheg vjrija`g ;

    Dh j sduvght agsdih, mjhs `gs ldhtjbgs `getrdhiqugs, mg rb`gr uhg rsistjheg sur p`jeg pdur jvdir`j vj`gur gxjetg gxibg pjr uh ldhtjbg mdhh ? dh uti`isg j`drs ;

    Udit uh pdtghtidltrg pdur rb`gr `j rsistjheg rbu`irglght edllg pdur `g vd`ulg m'uhpdstg Qjmid ?

    Udit uh jkustja`g pdur jkustgr `j vj`gur hegssjirg uhg fdis pdur tdutg ?

    Mjhs `gs 1 ejs, `g sylad`g gst `g llg ; S gst `j vj`gur tdtj`gmg `j rsistjheg. @g eursgur mivisg `j rsistjheg tdtj`g S gh 1pdrtidhs ;

    Q: < S ;

    Ui `g eursgur gst gh pdsitidh njut, j`drs < : gt Q: < S ? Ui `g eursgur gst gh pdsitidh ajssg, j`drs< 3 gt Q: < 3.

    Q1 < S Q: < S S < S(:- ).

    :.=. Mivisgur mg tghsidh ;

    Sdur mivisgr uhg tghsidh, dh uti`isg uh pdht mivisgur mg tghsidh. Egpdht gst edhstitu mg `jssdeijtidh gh srig mg mgux rsistjhegs Q: gtQ1 ;

    Vs < _Q1/ (Q:+ Q1)\.W

    Qgljrqug ;Ejs m'uhg rsistjheg vjrija`g ;

    S

    Q: < S

    Q1 < S(: )

    s

    S.SVg

    Vs < Vg. S/S

    Vs < .Vg

    dtghtidltrg

    Jkustja`gs

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr13

    :.7. Mivisgur mg edurjht ;

    Dh mivisg uh edurjht pjr `j lisg gh pjrj```g mg mgux rsistjhegs Q:gt Q1;

    :.6. Suissjheg ;

    Dh jppg``g puissjheg `hgrbig edhsdllg du maitg pjr uhg enjrbg pghmjht uhg sgedhmg. Egst `gprdmuit mu edurjht qui trjvgrsg `j enjrbg jvge `j tghsidh jux adrhgs ;

    S < W . I

    Sdur lgsurgr `j puissjheg dh uti`isg bhrj`glght uh wjttltrg.

    :.2. Frqugheg ;

    Sdur uh sibhj` pridmiqug u(t), e'gst `g hdlarg mg pridmgs pjr sgedhmg. @'uhit mg `j frqugheg gst

    `g ngrtz (Nz). Mg eg fjit `j rg`jtidh qui `ig `j frqugheg `j pridmg gst ;

    1. [email protected]]J]IDH EDH]IHWG U][email protected] ;

    @gs systlgs `getrdhiqugs dht agsdih muhg j`ilghtjtidh edhtihug. Egttg tghsidh edhtihug gstbhrj`glght bhrg pjrtir mg ;

    pi`gs pdur `gs systlgs pdrtja`gs gt fjia`g edhsdlljtidh, tg` qu'uhg t`edlljhmg mgt`visidh, gte.

    mg ajttgrig m'jeeulu`jtgurs pdur `gs systlgs tg` qug `j vditurg, gte.

    sgetgur pdur mgs systlgs qui mgljhmg mg `j puissjheg gt qui dht jees ju rsgju j`tgrhjtif.

    I: < I ._Q: / (Q: + Q1)\

    njrbg

    @j puissjheg lgsurg pjr `gwjttltrg gst ;

    S < W . I

    F < :/]

    ] ; pridmg gh sgedhmg (s). E'gst `g tglps jprs `gqug` `g sibhj` sg rptg.t

    u(t)

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    E n j p itrg 1 @ gs brj h m gu rs `ge tr iq u gs 1:

    Mjhs eg mgrhigr ejs, `j tghsidh j`tgrhjtivg mdit trg edhvgrtig gh tghsidh edhtihug stjai isg,edhfdrllght ju senlj syhdptiqug suivjht ;

    1.:. ]rjhsfdrljtidh ;

    @g r`g mg `j trjhsfdrljtidh gst mjajissgr `j tghsidh mu sgetgur, qui gst mg 113V. @`lght`getriqug qui rj`isg egttg fdhetidh gst `g trjhsfdrljtgur.

    1.1- Qgmrgssglght ;

    Egttg fdhetidh gst rj`isg `jimg mg `j midmg.

    1.1.:- Fdhetidhhglght gt sylad`g ;

    @j midmg gst uh edlpdsjht `getrdhiqug edhmuetidh uhimirgetidhhg``g ; g``g hg edhmuit qug mjhs `gsghs mg `jhdmg J vgrs `j ejtndmg O. Udh sylad`g gst rgprsght `j fiburg ei-mgssdus. @g sylad`gmg `j midmg ihmiqug `g sghs mg edhmuetidh. Wm < 3,2V gst jppg`g `jtghsidh mg sgui` mg `j midmg.

    Sd jrisjtidh mirgetg ; midmg pjssjhtg d`jrisjtidh ihvgrsg ; midmg a`dqug

    m

    Wm

    Jhdmg (J) Ojtndmg (O)

    W:/W1 < h1/h:

    Jvge h1 gt h: sdht rgspgetivglght`gs hdlargs mg spirgs mg `j adaihgpriljirg gt `j adaihg sgedhmjirg.

    J`drs pdur jvdir uhg tghsidh ghsdrtig p`us pgtitg qu'gh ghtrg, i` fjutjvdir `j edhmitidh (h1 0 h:).

    ]rjhsfdrljtidh Qgmrgssglght F i trjbg Qbu`jtidh

    Ugetgur113 v 73Nz

    ghsidhmg sdrtig

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr11

    1.1.1- Qj`isjtidh mu rgmrgssgur ;

    j. Qgmrgssglght ldhd j`tgrhjheg ;

    @g sibhj` issu mu trjhsfdrljtgur gst sihusdmj`. @j midmg gst pd`jrisg gh mirgetg mjhs `j`tgrhjhegpdsitivg gt gh ihvgrsg mjhs `j`tgrhjheg hbjtivg.

    a. Qgmrgssglght mdua`g j`tgrhjheg ;

    @g ldhtjbg `g p`us pdpu`jirg gst `g rgmrgssgur pdht mg midmgs ? i` j 1 midmgs edhmuetriegs pjrj`tgrhjheg ;

    M: gt M5 edhmuisght pghmjht `'j`tgrhjheg pdsitivg ? M1 gt M= edhmuisght pghmjht `'j`tgrhjheg hbjtivg.

    Dh rgljrqug qug `g edurjht gh sdrtig pjssg tdukdurs mjhs `g llg sghs, m'd `j fdrlg mu sibhj` ghsdrtig.

    Hdtg ; Whg @GM gst uhg midmg qui j `g llg fdhetidhhglght qu'uhg midmgdrmihjirg, `j miffrgheg qug` g gst mgstihg lgttrg uhg `ulirg(rdubg, vgrt, kjuhg gt drjhbg) qujhm g``g gst pjssjhtg. Sdur uhg @GMrdubg, `j tghsidh mg sgui` gst :.7V gt uh edurjht mg :3lJ mdhhg uhgihtghsit `ulihgusg mg sibhj`isjtidh sjtisfjisjhtg.

    1.5. Fi`trjbg ;

    Egttg fdhetidh gst rj isg pjr uh edhmghsjtgur. @g edhmghsjtgur gh sg enjrbgjht gt gh sgmenjrbgjht milihug `dhmu`jtidh mu sibhj` rgmrgss ? Qe tjht `j rsistjheg mg enjrbg ;

    Qgmrgssglght Qe

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    E n j p itrg 1 @ gs brj h m gu rs `ge tr iq u gs 15

    1.=. Qbu`jtidh ;

    @j rbu`jtidh gst `j fdhetidh qui pgrlgt m'jvdir uhg tghsidh njutglght edhtihug pjrtir m'uhgtghsidh dhmu`g edllg issug mu edhmghsjtgur ei-mgssus. G``g gst jssurg pjr `g rbu`jtgur ihtbr quigst uh edlpdsjht `getrdhiqug bhrj`glght trdis ardengs.

    Mjhs `j prjtiqug, `j fjli``g mgs rbu`jtgurs mg typg 2>xx gst `j p`us uti`isg. Wh rbu`jtgur mgegttg fjli` g m`ivrg uhg tghsidh edhstjhtg sgs adrhgs mg sdrtig bj`g xx V.

    Gxglp`gs ; 2>37 ; tghsidh `j sdrtig bj`g +7V.2>:1 ; tghsidh `j sdrtig bj`g +:1V.

    G ^ G Q E I E G Q G U D @ W

    Dh suppdsg qu'dh j uhg j`ilghtjtidh ajsg mu rbu`jtgur 2>37. Ej`eu`gr `j rsistjheg mg prdtgetidh mg `[email protected] mg sibhj`isjtidh mg `j prsgheg mg `j tghsidh mg sdrtig mu rbu`jtgur (7V).

    EDQQIBG ;

    WQ< 7 - [email protected]< 7 - :.7 < 5.7V ? [email protected]< IQ< :3lJ Q < WQ/IQ< 573.

    @j vj`gur hdrlj`isg `j p`us prdeng mjhs `j srig G:1 gst 553.

    SQ< WQ..IQ< 5.7 x 3.3: < 57 lR.

    @gs puissjhegs hdrlj`isgs sdht ; :/>R, :/=R, :/1R, :R, gte. Dh rgtight j`drs :/>R. @g endix fihj`gst ;

    553 - :/>R

    getgur113v73Nz

    rjhsfdrljtgur

    Jpp`iejtidh typg (J`ilghtjtidh rbu`g)

    @GM mgsibhj`isjtidh

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr1=

    ENJSI]QG 5

    UGEWQI]G MGU AIGHU G] MGU SGQUDHHGUIH]QDMWE]IDH ;

    @'uti isjtidh mg `'`getrieit pgut prsghtgr mgs risqugs m'`getrdeutidh gt jussi mgs risqugs m'iheghmig.

    Gh gffgt `g edurjht `getriqug j mgs gffgts pnysiqugs sur `g edrps ? egei pgut sg prdmuirg jvge uh edhtjetmirget du ihmirget jvge uh edhmuetgur sdus tghsidh. I` edhvight j`drs mg prghmrg `gs lgsurgs mg seurithegssjirgs pdur prdtbgr `gs aighs gt `gs pgrsdhhgs.

    :. GFFG]U [email protected] MW EDWQJH] [email protected]]QIZWG

    @g pjssjbg mu edurjht jffgetg gssghtig``glght `gs fdhetidhs rgspirjtdirgs gt eireu`jtdirgs ? i` prdvdqugbj`glght mgs ar`urgs. @j brjvit mu mjhbgr gst fdhetidh mg `'ihtghsit mu edurjht qui pjredurt `g edrps,mg sdh trjkgt, gt mu tglps mg pjssjbg ;

    ffgt mu edurjht `getriqug sur `g edrps nuljih

    .: 3.7 :3 73 :33

    t(s)

    7

    :

    3.7

    3.:

    3.37

    3.31

    3.3:

    Sriheipj`gs zdhgs ;:. pjs mg sghsjtidh1. Ughsjtidh5. @ilitg mu edurjht mg hdh `engr , mdu`gurs,

    sjhs gffgts irrvgrsia`g.=. Qisqug mg fiari``jtidh vghtrieu`jirg

    : 1

    5=

    :J Jrrt mu edgur

    27lJ Ugui` mg fiari``jtidh ejrmijqug irrvgrsia`g

    53lJ Ugui` mg pjrj`ysig rgspirjtdirg

    3lJ Edhtrjetidh luseu`jirg (]tjhisjtidh)

    .7lJ Ughsjtidh trs fjia`g

    (lJ)

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    E n j p itrg 5 U e u rit m gs a igh s gt m gs p grs d h h gs 17

    1. ]GHUIDH @ILI]G MG UGEWQI]G

    Ug`dh `g typg mg `dej , dhmfihit mgux typgs mg tghsidh mgseurit, 17V pdur `gs `dejuxnulimgs gt 73V pdur `gs `dejuxsges. Egs tghsidhs mitgs hdh

    mjhbgrgusgs edu`ght mjhs `g edrpsnuljih uh edurjht ihfrigur 53lJ (sgui` mg pjrj`ysig rgspirjtdirg)[email protected] mjhbgr mu edurjht `getriqugtjht fdhetidh mg sj murg mgpjssjbg. Uur `j fiburg suivjhtg dhrgprsghtg `g tglps mg edupurgljxilj` mu mispdsitif mg prdtgetidhgh fdhetidh mg `j tghsidh mg mfjut.

    Gxglp`g ;

    @drs m'uh mfjut mjhs uh`dej`sge (We < 73 V), si `j tghsidh mgedhtjet vjut :13 V, `g mispdsitif mgprdtgetidh mdit edupgr `g eireuit ghldihs mg3,1 sgedhmgs.

    5. EDH]JE] MIQGE] G] IHMIQGE] G] SQD]GE]IDH JUUDEIGG ;

    5.:- Edhtjet mirget ;

    E'gst `g edhtjet mgs pgrsdhhgs jvge `gs pjrtigs jetivgs mgsljtrig`s `getriqugs,edhmuetgurs du piegs sdus tghsidh.

    5.1- Edhtjet ihmirget ;

    Edhtjet mgs pgrsdhhgs jvge mgs ljssgs lisgsjeeimghtg``glght sdus tghsidh bhrj`glght suitg uh mfjutmisd`glght.

    5.5- Srdtgetidh edhtrg `gs edhtjets mirgets ;

    @gs priheipj`gs lgsurgs mg prdtgetidh edhtrg `gs edhtjets mirgets sdht ;

    @isd`jtidh mgs pjrtigs jetivgs mu ljtrig` `getriqug (bjihg, ejeng adrhgs, gte.). @j prdtgetidh ju ldygh m'ghvg`dppgs gt mg ajrrirgs (edffrgts, tja`gjux, gte.) qui

    pgrlgttght mg rghmrg `g ljtrig` `getriqug ihjeegssia`g. Lisg ndrs mg pdrtg, pjr `dibhglght ; E'gst `g ejs mgs `ibhgs jrighhgs njutg tghsidh gt

    ajssg tghsidh.

    ]grrg

    Edurag mg seurit

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr16

    @'uti isjtidh mg `j ]A]U (]rs Ajssg ]ghsidh mg Ueurit ; ihfrigurg 17 V). Egttg lgsurgedhsistg j`ilghtgr mgs eireuits sdus trs ajssg tghsidh fdurhig pjr uh trjhsfdrljtgur mgseurit.

    5.=. Srdtgetidh edhtrg `gs edhtjets ihmirgets

    Gh ejs mg mfjut misd`glght, i` fjut edupgr jutdljtiquglght `'j`ilghtjtidh mu eireuit prsghtjht`g mfjut. Sdur lgttrg gh dguvrg egttg lgsurg, dh uti`isg gh bhrj` `g MMQ (Miskdhetgur Miffrghtig` edurjht Qsimug`) ? `g priheipg muh tg` mispdsitif gst mg mtgetgr `g edurjht mg mfjut qui pjssg trjvgrs `j tgrrg gt duvrg `g eireuit, eg qui dffrg uhg prdtgetidh mgs aighs gt mgs pgrsdhhgs.

    G ^ G Q E I E G Q G U D @ W

    Mjhs uh jtg`igr, `j tghsidh `ilitg mg seurit [email protected]< :1 V. Dh j lgsur uhg rsistjheg mg prisg mg tgrrg mg=3. Zug` mdit trg `g ej`iarg mu miskdhetgur miffrghtig` 4.

    EDQQIBG ;

    Dh sjit qug [email protected] Q x Ir md Ir [email protected]/Q < 3,5J sdit Ir

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    E n j p itrg = @ h grbig p h gu l jtiq u g 12

    Ldtgur2 ; Edlprgssgur> ; @uarifiejtgur9 ; Fi`trg rbu`jtgur:3 ; Sdt mg edhmghsjtidh:: ; Surbg

    : ; Jeeulu`jtgur1 ; Ljhdltrg5 ; Udupjpg mg seurit= ; Vjhhg misd`glght7 ; Fi`trg priheipj`

    ENJSI]QG=

    @' GHGQBIG SHGWLJ]IZWGIH]QDMWE]IDH ;

    @hgrbig phguljtiqug gst edurjllght uti`isg mjhs `j pjrtig dprjtivg m'uh systlg jutdljtis ? `j

    sdureg mg egttg hgrbig gst `jir [email protected] prdmuetidh mg `'hgrbig phguljtiqug (jir edlpril) pguttrg rsulg gh 5 pnjsgs priheipj`gs ; `j edlprgssidh, stdeojbg gt mistriautidh mg `'jir edlpril.

    :. Edhstitutidh muhg ihstj``jtidh phguljtiqug;

    Whg ihstj``jtidh phguljtiqug gst edlpdsg mg ;

    :. uh bhrjtgur mjir edlpril (edlprgssgur)1. uh rsgrvdir mg ejpjeit prdpdrtidhhg``g ju mait mg `ihstj``jtidh5. uh rsgju mg ejhj`isjtidhs=. mgs jppjrgi`s juxi`ijirgs jssurjht mivgrsgs fdhetidhs ;

    rb`jbg mgs ejrjetristiqugs mg `'jir ; mtghmgur, rbu`jtgur mg prgssidh, gte. edhmitidhhglght mg `jir ; fi`trg, `uarifiejtgur, gte.

    edhtr`g gt seurit ; ljhdltrg, sdupjpg, gte.

    1. Srdmuetidh mg `hgrbig phguljtiqug ;

    1.:. Edlprgssidh mg `'jir ;

    Wh edlprgssgur (2), ghtrjh pjr uhldtgur (6), jspirg gt edlprilg `jirjlaijht gt `jeeulu`g mjhs uh rsgrvdir(jeeulu`jtgur).

    Edlprgssgur

    dtjtidh

    ]rjhs`jtidh

    (E

    dlprgssidh)

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    FDHE]IDH J`il gh tgr1>

    1.1- Utdeojbg ;

    @jeeulu`jtgur (:) stdeog `jir edlpril issu mu edlprgssgur gt vitg jihsi mg fjirg fdhetidhhgr `gldtgur tdut `g tglps. I` pgrlgt gh p`us mg edlpghsgr `gs vjrijtidhs mg prgssidh. Sdur mgs rjisdhs mgseurit, `jeeulu`jtgur edlpdrtg ;

    uhg vjhhg misd`glght uh rdaihgt mg purbg, uh ljhdltrg.

    1.5- Mistriautidh ;

    @j mistriautidh mg `jir edlpril sgffgetug pjr uhrsgju mg ejhj`isjtidhs gt miffrghts piqujbgs sgrvjht mgpdiht m'jees eg rsgju phguljtiqug. Wh brdupg mgedhmitidhhglght y gst ihstj`` jfih mg fi`trgr gt mg `uarifigr`'jir edlpril;

    uh fi`trg ; pdur jssengr `'jir gt fi trgr `gspdussirgs.

    uh ljhd-rbu`jtgur ; pdur rb`gr gt rbu`gr `jprgssidh mg `'jir.

    uh `uarifiejtgur ; pdur vitgr `j edrrdsidh gt jl`idrgr `g b`issglght.

    5. SQIHEISGU SNYUIZWGU ;

    @j fdreg lejhiqug prdmuitg pjr `hgrbig phguljtiqug gst `ig `j prgssidh pjr `j rg`jtidh ;

    F gst `j fdreg rsu`tjhtg gh Hgwtdh

    p gst `j prgssidh gh Sjsej`s (Sj)

    U gst `j surfjeg gh l

    1

    .

    @g pjsej` tjht trdp pgtit pdur `gs prgssidhs uti`isgs mjhs `ihmustrig, dh uti`isg sduvght `g ajr ;

    Mjhs uhg ihstj``jtidh phguljtiqug dh sg `ilitg uhg prgssidh mg 6 :3 ajr.

    : ajr < :37 Sj. : ajr < :33333 H/l1

    F< p . U Uurfjeg U

    F

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    19

    @j pjrtig edlljhmg muh systlg jutdljtis lgt gh uvrg uhg hgrbig fjia`g. G``g gstmdhe ihejpja`g mghvdygr mirgetglght `hgrbig hegssjirg `jetidhhgur ? md `uti`isjtidhmgs prjetidhhgurs qui jssurght `j mistriautidh mg `hgrbig jux jetidhhgurs.

    @j pdsitidh m'uhg tg``g fdhetidh mjhs uhg enjhg m'hgrbig, jihsi qug sj fdhetidh b`daj`gsdht rgprsghtgs pjr `gs fiburgs suivjhtgs.

    Dh s'ihtrgssg surtdut jux hgrbigs `getriqugs gt phguljtiqugs, qui sdht `g p`us sduvghtuti`isgs ;

    Ghgrbig Srjetidhhgur GhgrbigG`getriqug Edhtjetgur du Qg jis G`getriqug

    Shguljtiqug Mistriautgur Shguljtiqug

    WHI]G JME

    FDHE]IDH

    M I U ] Q I A W G Q

    SQGUGH]J]IDH

    EDLSG]GHEGU J]]GHMWGU

    pjrtir mg tdut du pjrtig muh prdmuit suppdrt jvge sdh ejnigr mgs enjrbgs gt sdh mdssigrtgenhiqug ;

    Gxp`iqugr `g priheipg mg fdhetidhhglght muhg edlljhmg Endisir gt lgttrg gh uvrg `jppjrgi` mg edlljhmg

    ENJSI]QGU [email protected] MJHU @J FDHE]IDH MIU]QIAWGQ

    Srjetidhhgurs `getriqugs Njengur srig / Vjrijtgur mg vitgssg ihmustrig` Srjetidhhgurs phguljtiqugs

    [email protected]]GQ EDHVGQ]IQ

    WHI]G JME

    ]QJHULG]]QG JBIQ

    Ljtirgmuvrg gh

    ghtrg

    Ljtirgmuvrg gh

    sdrtig

    hgrbigmghtrg

    Mistriaugr`hgrbig

    ENJHG MHGQBIG

    MIU]QIAWGQ

    hgrbigmispdhia`g

    Ghgrbigmistriaug

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    FDHE]IDH Mistriaugr53

    ENJSI]QG :

    @GU SQGJE]IDHHGWQU [email protected]]QIZWGUIH]QDMWE]IDH

    @gs prjetidhhgurs sdht mgs edhstitujhts qui, sur drmrg mg `j pjrtig mg

    edlljhmg, jssurght `j mistriautidh mg `hgrbig mg puissjheg juxjetidhhgurs. Mjhs `gs eireuits `getriqugs, `gs prjetidhhgurs sdhtbhrj`glght sdit uh rg`jis, sdit uh edhtjetgur. @g edhtjetgur jssurg ghp`us `gxtihetidh mg `jre `getriqug qui jeedlpjbhg sduvght `jedllutjtidh mg `hgrbig mg fdrtg puissjheg. Gh gffgt, qujhm dh duvrg uheireuit gh edurs mg fdhetidhhglght, `g edhtjet gh ejusg prdvdqug uh jre`getriqug qui pgut trg mjhbgrgux pdur `gs aighs gt `gs pgrsdhhgs.

    :. @G [email protected]

    @g rg`jis gst uh edlpdsjht `getriqug rj isjht `j fdhetidh mihtgrfjjbg ghtrg uh eireuit mgedlljhmg, bhrj`glght ajs hivgju, gt uh eireuit mg puissjheg j`tgrhjtif du edhtihu (Isd`jtidhbj`vjhiqug). Dh mistihbug mgux typgs mg rg`jis ; `g rg`jis `getrdljbhtiqug gt `g rg`jis stjtiqug.

    :.:. Qg`jis `getrdljbhtiqug ;

    :.:.:. priheipg ;

    Wh rg`jis `getrdljbhtiqug gst edhstitu muhg adaihg j`ilghtg pjr `g eireuit mg edlljhmg, mdht`g hdyju ldai`g prdvdqug `j edllutjtidh mg edhtjets pduvjht trg p`je mjhs uh eireuit mgpuissjheg. @g rg`jis `getrdljbhtiqug gst rsgrv pdur `gs fjia`gs puissjhegs.

    :.:.1. Ejrjetristiqugs fdhmjlghtj`gs ;

    ]ghsidh mj`ilghtjtidh ; Egst uhg tghsidh edhtihug qui pgrlgt mgxeitgr `j adaihg. @j rsistjheg mg `j adaihg ; pjrjltrg pgrlgttjht mg mtgrlihgr `g edurjht eireu`jht mjhs `g

    eireuit mg edlljhmg. @g edurjht mgs edhtjets ; egst `g edurjht ljxilj` qug pgut edllutgr `gs edhtjets mg rg`jis

    sjhs mdlljbg.

    :.1. Qg`jis stjtiqug ;

    :.1.:. Mfihitidh

    Eg qui gst vrji pdur uh rg`jis `getrdljbhtiqug gst vrji pdur uh rg`jisstjtiqug. Mg p`us uh rg`jis stjtiqug edllutg mg ljhirg tdtj`glghtstjtiqug, sjhs pieg gh lduvglght, edhfrjht ju edlpdsjht uhgmurg mg vig qujsii``ilitg. @j strueturg mg ajsg muh rg`jis stjtiqugjihsi qug sdh fdhetidhhglght sdht edllg suit ;

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    E n j p itrg : @ gs p rj e tid h h gu rs `ge tr iq u gs 5:

    :. @g eireuit m'ghtrg edrrgspdhm `'uhit mg trjitglght ?

    1. @g eireuit mg lisg hivgju ?5. @g eireuit mg mtgetidh mg pjssjbg

    mg zrd pgrlgt mg hg edllutgr `grg`jis qug si `j tghsidh sgetgur gstprjtiquglght hu``g ? jihsi dhvitgrj `gs rjydhhglghts mus uhg

    edllutjtidh m'uhg brjhmg vj`gur ?=. @j enjrbg.

    :.1.1. Ejrjetristiqugs fdhmjlghtj`gs ;

    Edurjht mglp`di ; edurjht ljxilj` qug pgut edllutgr `g edhtjet mg sdrtig. ]ghsidh mghtrg ; egst `j tghsidh mj`ilghtjtidh. G``g pgut trg edhtihug du j`tgrhjtivg. ]ghsidh mg sdrtig ; egst `j tghsidh mj`ilghtjtidh mg `j enjrbg. G``g gst bhrj`glght mg typg

    j`tgrhjtivg.

    :.5. Gxglp`g mg eireuit ;

    @j fiburg suivjhtg prsghtg uh gxglp`gmg rg`jis stjtiqug aigh edhhu `g LDE 5=:, jihsi qug `gldhtjbg mg ajsg `g lgttjht gh uvrg ;

    Ui `'uhit mg edlljhmg, iei ljtrij`isg pjr uhg pdrtg HJHM, fdurhit uh 3 `j sdrtig mg egttgpdrtg, `j midmg ihfrjrdubg edhmuit, eg qui fjit edhmuirg `'dptdtrije ihtgrhg, qui sdh tduredlljhmg `g trije gxtrigur, qui mgvight edllg uh eireuit fgrl ? `j enjrbg (@DJM) gst j`drsj`ilghtg pjr 1=3V JE

    @g rg`jis gst luhi mu systlg "zgrd erdssihb", eg qui vitg mg edlljhmgr `g trije qujhm `jtghsidh sgetgur gst brjhmg, eg qui vitg mgs pjrjsitgs mg edllutjtidh.

    `ilghtjtidh

    EnjrbgBQ

    J:

    J1

    VBJ1

    @g trije ]Q sg edlpdrtg edllg uh ihtgrruptgur edlljhm ; Ui VBJ1< 3, ]Q gst a`dqu (eireuit duvgrt), `j enjrbg

    h'gst pjs j`ilghtg ? Ui VBJ1< :V, ]Q edhmuit (eireuit fgrl ; sj tghsidh

    VJ:J1gst hb`ibgja`g), `j enjrbg gst j`ilghtg.

    Fdhetidhhglght silp`ifi muh ]QIJE

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    FDHE]IDH Mistriaugr51

    1. @G EDH]JE]GWQ

    1.:. Sriheipg ;

    Wh edhtjetgur gst uh rg`jis `getrdljbhtiqug pjrtieu`igr,pduvjht edllutgr mg fdrtgs puissjhegs breg uh mispdsitifmg edupurg mjre `getriqug. Uj edlljhmg pgut trg edhtihugdu j`tgrhjtivg. Uj edhstitutidh gst edllg suit ;

    Mgs p`gs priheipjux mg puissjheg ? Wh edhtjet juxi`ijirg (jvge pdssiai`it m'jmmitidhhgr

    ju edhtjetgur uh a`de mg edhtjets juxi`ijirgsihstjhtjhs du tglpdriss) ?

    uhg jrljturg fixg gt uh jutrg ldai g ? Wh rgssdrt mg rjppg ? Wh eireuit ljbhtiqug ? Whg adaihg mg edlljhmg mu edhtjetgur. Ui `j

    adaihg gst j`ilghtg g``g jttirg `jrljturg ldai`gpdur jetidhhgr `gs p`gs mg puissjheg ? Ui g``g hgstpjs j`ilghtg, uh rgssdrt mg rjppg` duvrg `gs p`gs

    mg puissjheg.

    1.1. Ejrjetristiqugs `getriqugs ;

    ]ghsidh hdlihj`g mglp`di Wg ; Egst `j tghsidh ghtrg mgux p`gs mg puissjheg qui hgprdvdqug hi enjuffglght hi mtridrjtidh mu edhtjetgur.

    Edurjht hdlihj`g mglp`di Ig ; Egst `g edurjht qui pgut eireu`gr mjhs `gs p`gs mg puissjhegsjhs prdvdqugr hi enjuffglght hi mtridrjtidh mu edhtjetgur.

    Edurjht tngrliqug edhvghtidhhg` (Itn ) ; edurjht qu'uh edhtjetgur gh pdsitidh fgrlg pgutsuppdrtgr pghmjht > ngurgs sjhs qug `'enjuffglght mg `j adaihg hg mpjssg 93E.

    Sduvdir mg edupurg ; edurjht ljxilj` qug `g edhtjetgur pgut edupgr.

    1.5. Ejtbdrigs mg fdhetidhhglght gt endix ;

    Sdur endisir uh edhtjetgur i` fjut tghir edlptg, gh p`us mgs ejrjetristiqugs premghtgs, mgsejtbdrigs mglp`di. Whg ejtbdrig mglp`dig mfihit, pdur `uti`isjtidh hdrlj`g muh edhtjetgur, `gsedhmitidhs mtja`issglght gt mg edupurg mu edurjht, gh fdhetidh mu edurjht hdlihj` mglp`di "Ig" gtmg `j tghsidh hdlihj`g mglp`di "Wg" ? g``g mpghm ;

    Mg `j hjturg mu regptgur edhtr` (rsistjheg, ldtgur ejbg, ldtgur ajbugs, gte.). Mgs edhmitidhs mglp`di mjhs `gsqug``gs sgffgetught `gs fgrlgturgs gt `gs duvgrturgs

    ( ldtgur `jhe du ej`, gh edurs mg mljrrjbg, frgihjbg pjr edhtrg edurjht , gte. ).

    Gh j`tgrhjtif Gh edurjht edhtihuEjtbdrig Wti`isjtidh Ejtbdrig uti`isjtidh

    JE: Qsistjheg ME: QsistjhegJE1 Ldtgur jsyhenrdhg ajbug ME1 Ldtgur Unuht

    JE5 Ldtgur jsyhenrdhg ejbg. ME5 Mljrrjbg gt frgihjbg pjr edhtrg

    edurjht mgs ldtgurs UnuhtME= Ldtgurs srig

    JE=

    Ldtgurs jsyhenrdhg ejbg gt ajbugs- Ihvgrsidh mu sghs mg ljreng- Frgihjbg pjr edhtrg edurjht- Ljreng pjr edups

    ME7 Mljrrjbg gt frgihjbg pjr edhtrg

    edurjht mgs ldtgurs srig

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    E n j p itrg : @ gs p rj e tid h h gu rs `ge tr iq u gs 55

    Sdur endisir uh edhtjetgur dh uti isg bhrj`glght `gs buimgs mg endix prdpdss pjr `gsedhstruetgurs ;

    Gxglp`g mg endix ; Wh eireuit mg enjuffjbg gst edlpds pjr mgux enjrbgs rsistivgs tripnjss.Enjqug enjrbg edhsdllg uh edurjht mg :3J pjr pnjsg sdus uhg tghsidh W < 5>3V.

    I` sjbit mg `j ejtbdrig mg fdhetidhhglght JE:. Uur `g buimg mg endix dh pgut dptgr pdur `gedhtjetgur suivjht ;

    @E:-M39 J67

    1.7. Uenljs mg lisg gh uvrg ;

    Sdur j`ilghtgr `j adaihg muh edhtjetgur dh pgut uti`isgr `uh mgs mgux ldhtjbgs suivjhts ;

    Ui dh jppuig sur `g adutdh pdussdir LJ `j adaihg mu edhtjetgur gst j`ilghtg gt fgrlg `g edhtjetO. Llg si dh rg`eng `g adutdh pdussdir `j adaihg rgstg j`ilghtg (jutdljihtigh). Sdur edupgr`j`ilghtjtidh i` suffit mduvrir `g adutdh pdussdir JQ.

    Bhrj`glght, mjhs uhg enjhg mhgrbig `getriqug, `g prjetidhhgur hg suti`isg pjs sgu`, ljisjssdei uhg e`jssg mjppjrgi``jbg typiqug ; sgetidhhgur, rg`jis tngrliqug, gte.

    5. @G UGE]IDHHGWQ

    @g sgetidhhgur gst uh jppjrgi` mg edhhgxidh qui pgrlgt m'isd`gr(spjrgr `getriquglght) uh eireuitpdur gffgetugr mgs dprjtidhs mg ljihtghjheg du mg ldmifiejtidh sur `gs eireuits `getriqugs qui sgtrduvght gh jvj`. Jihsi i` pgrlgt mjssurgr `j seurit mgs pgrsdhhgs qui trjvji``ght sur `g rgstg mg`ihstj``jtidh gh jldht.

    @g sgetidhhgur hg pdssmg jueuh pduvdir mg edupurg, pjr edhsqught, i` hg mdit pjs trg ljhuvrgh enjrbg.

    Q

    J

    Edlljhmg pjr ihtgrruptgur Edlljhmg pjr mgux pdussdirs (`j p`us uti`is)

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    FDHE]IDH Mistriaugr5=

    Dh trduvg bj`glght mgs sgetidhhgurs qui sgrvght gh p`us mg pdrtg-fusia`g. Dh `gs msibhg pjr"Ugetidhhgurs pdrtg-fusia`g" ;

    =. @GU [email protected]

    @gs fusia`gs sdht mgs jppjrgi`s mg prdtgetidh mdht `j fdhetidh gst

    mduvrir uh eireuit pjr fusidh muh `lght ej`iar, `drsqug `gedurjht mpjssg uhg vj`gur preisg, pghmjht uh tglps mdhh. Dhtrduvg ;

    @j e`jssg bI du bB ; eg sdht `gs fusia`gs musjbg bhrj` ?i`s prdtbght edhtrg `gs surenjrbgs gt `gs edurts-eireuits.

    @j e`jssg jL ; eg sdht `gs fusia`gs mjeedlpjbhglghtLdtgur prvus pdur `j prdtgetidh edhtrg `gsedurts-eireuits gt surtdut pdur `j prdtgetidh mgs ldtgurs.

    7. @G [email protected] ]NGQLIZWG

    @g rg`jis tngrliqug gst uh jppjrgi` mg prdtgetidh ejpja`g mg

    prdtbgr edhtrg `gs surenjrbgs prd`dhbgs. Whg surenjrbg gst uhg`vjtidh jhdrlj`g mu edurjht edhsdll pjr `g regptgur (: 5 Ih),ljis prd`dhbg mjhs `g tglps, eg qui ghtrjhg uh enjuffglght mg`'ihstj``jtidh pduvjht j``gr kusqu' sj mgstruetidh. @g tglps mg edupurggst ihvgrsglght prdpdrtidhhg` `'jublghtjtidh mu edurjht.

    @g rg`jis tngrliqug uti`isg `j prdprit m'uh ai`jlg fdrl mg mgux `jlgs lihegs jyjht mgs edgffieightsmg mi`jtjtidh miffrghts. @jppjritidh muhg surenjrbg sg trjmuit pjr `jublghtjtidh mg `j enj`gur (gffgtkdu`g) ? @g ai`jlg mtgetg `'jublghtjtidh mg enj`gur, sg mfdrlg gt duvrg `g edhtjet juxi`ijirg.

    ylad`g

    Edhtjetedlljhm

    getidhhgur Uilp`g getidhhgur jvge fusia`gs ihedrpdrs

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    E n j p itrg : @ gs p rj e tid h h gu rs `ge tr iq u gs 57

    Eg edhtjet tjht edhvghja`glght p`je mjhs `g eireuit mg edlljhmg vj edupgr `'j`ilghtjtidh mg `jadaihg mu edhtjetgur qui vj duvrir sgs p`gs mg puissjhegs gt ihtgrrdlprg `g pjssjbg mg `'hgrbig`getriqug ju trjvgrs mu regptgur. Egst mdhe `'jppjrgi` jbg mg edlljhmg qui edupg `g eireuit mgpuissjheg gst hdh pjs `g rg`jis tngrliqug.

    G ^ G Q E I E G Q G U D @ W

    G^GQEIEG H: ;

    Sdur mistriaugr `hgrbig vgrs `jetidhhgur, typiquglght uh ldtgur tripnjs, `g senlj suivjht gst

    bhrj`glght jmdpt. Merirg `g fdhetidhhglght mu ldhtjbg ;

    G^GQEIEG H1 ;

    @drsqu'dh j edlljhmgr p`usigursrg`jis, dh j agsdih mdhe mgp`usigurs trjhsistdrs. Sdur milihugr`j surfjeg mu eireuit ilpril, dh

    uti`isg mgs eireuits ihtbrsedhtghjht p`usigurs trjhsistdrs mgedlljhmg ? eg gh p`us mgs

    ldhtjbgs Mjr`ibhtdh. Dh mdhhg titrg m'gxglp`g `g [email protected] 1335.Mdhhgr j`drs `g ldhtjbg mgedlljhmg m'uh rg`jis jvge egeireuit.

    i`jlg hdh mfdrlg < mfdrljtidh mug `enjuffglghtprdvdqug pjr `g pjssjbg mu edurjht.

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    FDHE]IDH Mistriaugr56

    EDQQIBG ;

    G^GQEIEG H: ;

    Ui `g adutdh pdussdirU: mu eireuit mg edlljhmg gst jetidhh, `j adaihg mu edhtjetgur OL:gstj`ilghtg ? `g edhtjet OL: mu eireuit mg edlljhmg sg fgrlg jihsi qug `gs edhtjets OL: mueireuit mg puissjheg, eg qui ghtrjhg `j rdtjtidh mu ldtgurLJU?

    Ui U: gst rg`en `g edhtjet OL: mu eireuit mg edlljhmg ljihtight `j`ilghtjtidh mg `j adaihgmu edhtjetgur (lldrisjtidh). Dh pjr`g j`drs mjutd ljihtigh ?

    Sdur jrrtgr `g ldtgur LJU, dh jppuig sur `g adutdh pdussdir Jr, eg qui duvrg `g eireuit mgedlljhmg ? `j adaihg OL: hgst p`us j`ilghtg gt `gs edhtjets OL: (edlljhmg gt puissjheg)sdht duvgrts ?

    Ui ju edurs mu fdhetidhhglght (OL: fgrl) i` y j uhg surenjrbg `g rg`jis tngrliqug Fsenjuffg, `g edhtjet qui `ui gst jssdei F sduvrg, eg qui duvrg `g eireuit mg edlljhmg gtprdtbg `g ldtgur LJU ?

    @g sgetidhhgur pdrtg fusia`g j jussi uh edhtjet juxi`ijirg hdt Z qui sduvrg jvjht `gs edhtjetsZ mu eireuit mg puissjheg g, ejs d dh ljhuvrg `g sgetidhhgur gh enjrbg ? egei j `g llggffgt qug `g edhtjet juxi ijirg mu rg`jis tngrliqug. Eg edhtjet gst jppg` edhtjet mgpredupurg .

    G^GQEIEG H1 ;

    G ^ G Q E I E G U H D H Q G U D @ W U

    G^GQEIEG H: ;

    J fih mg lihilisgr `g edurjht mg mljrrjbg muh ldtgur jsyhenrdhg, dh uti isg uh mljrrjbg rsistjhegs stjtdriqugs. Ju mljrrjbg `j`ilghtjtidh mu ldtgur sg fjit vij egs rsistjhegs. Jprs uhgtglpdrisjtidh ] dh edurt-eireuitg egs rsistjheg pdur `ilihgr `gurs gffgts, `g ldtgur gst j`drs j`ilghtgrmirgetglght jvge `g rsgju. Mdhhgr `g eireuit mg puissjheg gt mg edlljhmg.

    G^GQEIEG H1 ;

    Mdhhgr uh arjhenglght mgs rg`jis jvge `gldtgur pdur qug `j edlljhmg mg `uh mgsmgux rg`jis pgrlgt mg edlljhmgr `jrdtjtidh mu ldtgur mjhs uh sghs ? gt `jedlljhmg mg `jutrg pgrlgt mg `g fjirgtdurhgr mjhs `jutrg sghs.Whg uti isjtidh mg eg ldhtjbg gst `jedlljhmg muh stdrg jutdljtis.

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    E n j p itrg 1 N j e n gu r s rig V j rij tgu r m g v itgs s g ih m u s tr ig` 52

    Enjpitrg 1

    NJENGWQ UGQIG / VJQIJ]GWQ MG VI]GUUG IHMWU][email protected]:. SQIHEISG MG FDHE]IDHHGLGH] ;

    :.:. Utrueturg ;

    @j strueturg jmdptg bhrj`glght pdur uh njengur gst `j suivjhtg ;

    :.1. Fdhetidhhglght ;

    @g fdhetidhhglght muh njengur edlprghm mgux pnjsgs priheipj`gs ; pnjsg jetivg gt pnjsg mg rdug`iarg ;

    Snjsg jetivg ; trjhsistdr pjssjht gt `j midmg mg rdug `iarg a`dqug ? `j p`gihg tghsidh G gstjpp`iqug `j enjrbg.

    Snjsg mg rdug iarg ;`g trjhsistdr gst a`dqu gt `j midmg gst pjssjhtg. @j tghsidh gst hu``g juxadrhgs mg `j enjrbg kusqu eg qug `j midmg mgvighhg a`dqug.

    Sdur jrrivgr egttg fih `j ajsg mu trjhsistdr mdit trgj`ilghtg pjr uh sibhj` rgetjhbu`jirg mg `j fdrlg ;

    :.5. Ejrjetristiqugs `getriqugs ;

    :.5.:. Enjrbg Q ;

    @j enjrbg gst purglght rsistivg ; mdhe si `g trjhsistdr gst sjtur `j tghsidh mg sdrtig W < G, gt si `gtrjhsistdr gst a`dqu `j tghsidh mg sdrtig gst hu``g (`uti`isjtidh mg `j midmg mg rdug `iarg hgst pjshegssjirg) ;

    Dh jppg``g vj`gur ldyghhg mg `j tghsidh u `jirg Jghtrg `g trje mg eg``g-ei ( u(t) ) gt `jxg mgtglps mivis pjr `j pridmg ]. Mg eg fjit `j vj`gur ldyghhg mg `j tghsidh mg sdrtig gst ;

    W < (.].G)/] sdit W

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    FDHE]IDH Mistriaugr5>

    Dh pgut rgljrqugr qug `jetidh sur `j vj`gur ldyghhg mg `j tghsidh W sg fjit pjr `ihtgrlmijirg murjppdrt eye`iqug.

    Hdtj ; `jetidh sur `j tghsidh W pgrlgt mg ldmifigr `e`jirjbg muhg `jlpg, `j enj`gur muhenjuffjbg, gte.

    :.5.1. Enjrbg G-Q ;

    @j vj`gur ldyghhg mg eg sibhj` mg sdrtig gst ; Wldy < (.].G +(:-).].GE)/] sdit W

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    E n j p itrg 1 N j e n gu r s rig V j rij tgu r m g v itgs s g ih m u s tr ig` 59

    1. VJQIJ]GWQU IHMWU][email protected] SDWQ LD]GWQ J EDWQJH] EDH]IHW ;

    1.:. Utrueturg gt priheipg mg fdhetidhhglght;

    Wh vjrijtgur mg vitgssg gst uh jppjrgi` qui pgrlgt mg edlljhmgr `j vitgssg mg rdtjtidh muh ldtgur edurjht edhtihu. @j strueturg muh tg` mispdsitif gst bhrj`glght `j suivjhtg ;

    1.1. Ejrjetristiqugs ;

    @gs priheipj`gs ejrjetristiqugsmuh vjrijtgur mg vitgssg ihmustrig` sdht ;

    ]ghsidh rsgju `getriqug; gxglp`g 113/1=3V / 73-63Nz. ]ghsidh mihmuit; gxglp`g :73V pdur uh rsgju tripnjs mg 113V. Ej`iarg vjrijtgur edurjht ihmuit; gxglp`g :1J. Edhsibhg mg vitgssg ;gxglp`g +/- :3V (vitgssg lihilj`g/vitgssg ljxilj`g). Qbu`jtidh ; gxglp`g Vitgssg gt edup`g. Qgtdur mg vitgssg; gxglp`g myhjld tjenyltriqug.

    1.5. Gxglp`g mg rjeedrmglght stjhmjrm ;

    Edhvgrtissgur mgpuissjheg(Njengur, Qgmrgssgur)

    sgju`getriqug

    Ejrtg `getrdhiqug mgedlljhmg

    ]

    Myhjld ]jenyltriqug(lgsurg mg `j vitgssg)

    Du edmgur dptiqug

    jptgurmg edurjht

    Vjrijtgur mg vitgssg

    dhsibhgmg vitgssg

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    FDHE]IDH Mistriaugr=3

    Mgseriptidh mu ldhtjbg ;

    @g vjrijtgur gst j`ilght pjr `g rsgju `getriqug (ghtrg @: gt @1/H). @ihmuit mu ldtgur gst edhhget jux sdrtigs mg puissjheg J: gt J1. @j myhjld tjenyltriqug M] mdhhg uhg iljbg mg `j vitgssg mg rdtjtidh mg `j ljenihg

    edurjht edhtihu. @g pdtghtidltrg QF pgrlgt mg endisir `j vitgssg msirg (`ihjirglght).

    @g adutdh pdussdir Ljreng pgrlgt mg `jhegr `g ldtgur (jvge jutdljihtigh) ? `g adutdh jrrtpgrlgt mg `jhegr `g prdem mg frgihjbg.

    G ^ G Q E I E G Q G U D @ W

    Sdur `g ldhtjbg mg edlljhmg ajsg mu HG777 premjht ;

    :.Ldhtrgr qug `g edurjht mg enjrbg mg E5 gst edhstjht. Dh jppg``g eg edurjht I3.1-Mdhhgr j`drs `j `di mg vjrijtidh mg `j tghsidh mg E5. Dh jppg``g egttg tghsidh WE5. Dh suppdsg qug `j

    edhstjhtg m'ihtbrjtidh gst hu``g (edhmghsjtgur menjrb).5-]rjegr `j fdrlg mg `j tghsidh W E5.=-Ldhtrgr qu'dh j ; ]w < E5. W/I3.

    7-Ldhtrgr qug `j vj`gur ldyghhg mu sibhj` edlljhmjht `j LEE gst mg `j fdrlg ;WLEE < (VEE:.E5/].I3). W.

    6-Edhe`urg j`drs.

    EDQQIBG ;

    :. ID < (VEE: VEE1 VAG)/(Q6+QJK:). ]dutgs `gs edlpdsjhtgs mg egttg qujtidh sdht mgsedhstjhtgs j`drs Id gst edhstjht.

    1. Dh sjit qug Id < E5.(mWE5/mt) j`drs ; WE5 < (Id/E5).t.5. `g trje mg `j tghsidh WE5 ;

    =. Mg eg qui premg dh pgut erirg ; W< (Id/E5).]R mdhe ]R < (W. E5) /Id.7. WLEE < VEE:.]R/] gh rglp`jjht ]R pjr sdh gxprgssidh dh pgut erirg ;

    WLEE < (VEE:.E5/].I3). W.6. @jetidh sur `j rsistjheg jkustja`g JK: pgrlgt mg vjrigr `g edurjht Id gt pjr `j suitg vjrigr`j tghsidh mg edlljhmg mu ldtgur, eg qui jbit sur `j vitgssg mg rdtjtidh mu ldtgur.

    W

    ]R

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    E n j p itrg 5 @ gs p rj e tid h hgu rs p h gu l j tiq u gs =:

    ENJSI]QG 5

    @GU SQGJE]IDHHGWQU SHGWLJ]IZWGU

    :. FDHE]IDH ;

    I`s dht pdur fdhetidh gssghtig``g mg mistriaugr `'jir sdus prgssidh jux miffrghts drifiegs mgs jetidhhgursphguljtiqugs. Edllg `g edhtjetgur gst jssdei uh ldtgur `getriqug, `g mistriautgur gst `g pr-jetidhhgur jssdei uh vrih phguljtiqug ;

    1. EDHU]I]WJH]U M'WH MIU]QIAW]GWQ ;

    Dh pgut edlpjrgr uh mistriautgur uh rdaihgt qug `dh duvrg gt fgrlgr hdh pjs `j ljih, ljis pjrmgs drmrgs mdhhs pjr `j SE.

    I` gst edhstitu muhg pjrtig fixg (`g edrps) gt muhg pjrtig ldai`g (`g tirdir) qui pgut sg mp`jegr `ihtrigur mg `j pjrtig fixg sg`dh uh drmrg mirgetg (ljhug``g) du ihmirgetg (prdvghjht mg `j SE). @g tirdirgst mdt mg edhmuitgs pgrlgttjht `g pjssjbg mg `jir ghtrg `gs miffrghts drifiegs mg `j pjrtig fixg.

    5. @GU SQIHEISJW^ MIU]QIAW]GWQU SHGWLJ]IZWGU;

    Wh mistriautgur gst ejrjetris ; Sjr sdh hdlarg m'drifiegs,e'gst mirg `g hdlarg mg `ijisdhs qu'i` pgut jvdir jvge

    sdh ghvirdhhglght (jrrivg, sdrtig(s) gt enjppglght mg `j prgssidh) ? Sjr sdh hdlarg mg pdsitidhs qug pgut deeupgr `g tirdir.

    irdir

    Sjrtig fixg

    Ghgrbigphguljtiqug

    Ghgrbig vgrsjetidhhgurs

    Drmrg mg hdh mistriautidh

    Drmrg mg mistriautidh

    Sdsitidh : Sdsitidh 1

    istriautgur phguljtiqug

    Mistriautgur

    Ghgrbigphguljtiqug

    Ghgrbigphguljtiqug

    mistriaug

    istriaugr`'hgrbig

    Drmrgs

    `g muh mi triautgur phguljtiqug

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    FDHE]IDH Mistriaugr=1

    @g hdl gt `j rgprsghtjtidh m'uh mistriautgur medu`ght mg egs mgux ejrjetristiqugs. Enjqug pdsitidhgst sylad`isg pjr uh ejrr mjhs `gqug` fiburght `gs vdigs mg pjssjbg mg `'jir edlpril ;

    Gxglp`gs ;

    Mistriautgur 5/1

    Gh pdsitidh rgpds, `drifieg mj`ilghtjtidh muvrih gst rg`i `drifieg menjppglght ; `jtibg gst ljihtghug mdhe rghtrg ?

    Gh pdsitidh trjvji`, prdvdqug pjr uh drmrgmg `j SE, `drifieg mj`ilghtjtidh mu vrihgst lis gh `ijisdh jvge `j sdureg mjiredlpril. Sjr edhsqught, `j tibg sdrt.

    Mistriautgur 7/1

    Uuivjht `j pdsitidh deeupg, `jir edlpril gstvgrrdui`` vgrs `uh mgs mgux drifiegsmj`ilghtjtidh mu vrih tjhmis qug `jutrg gst `enjppglght.

    =. @GU MIUSDUI]IFU MG EDLLJHMG ;

    @j edlljhmg mu mistriautgur j pdur fdhetidh mgpdsitidhhgr `g tirdir mjhs uhg pdsitidh du mjhs `jutrg. G``gpgut trg `getrdljbhtiqug, phguljtiqug,`getrdphguljtiqug du ljhug``g. Dh pjr`g ;

    Muh mistriautgur ldhdstja`g si `g rgtdur mu tirdir sjpdsitidh ihitij`g gst jssur pjr uh rgssdrt mg rjppg` ?

    muh mistriautgur aistja`g si `g tirdir rgstg mjhs `'tjtqug `ui j ilpds `g mgrhigr drmrg ghvdy pjr `j SE

    Drifieg menjppglght

    Drifieg mj`ilghtjtidh

    Drifieg muti`isjtidh

    SrgssidhGenjppglght

    grs jetidhhgurs

    Drmrg

    Ejsg : Ejsg 1

    Mistriautgur edlljhmg `getriqug

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    E n j p itrg 5 @ gs p rj e tid h hgu rs p h gu l j tiq u gs =5

    @j edlljhmg mu mistriautgur gst rgprsghtg pjr uh rgetjhb`g jeed` `j ejsg qug``g edllutg gtedlp`tg pjr uh du p`usigurs sylad`gs senljtisjht `j tgenhd`dbig uti`isg.

    @j fiburg suivjhtg mdhhg `j senljtisjtidh mgs miffrghts mispdsitifs mg edlljhmg ;

    Gxglp`gs;mistriautgur pi`dtjbg phguljtiqug

    7. [email protected]]IDH; SQGUUG SHGWLJ]IZWG

    Mjhs uhg prgssg phguljtiqug dh j `g eye`g suivjht;

    Wh jppui sur uh adutdh pdussdir (Ap:) ; mgseghtg mg `j tibg mu vrih Wh jppui sur uh adutdh pdussdir (Ap1) ; rghtrg mg `j tibg mu vrih

    @g senlj ei-mgssus ldhtrg `g ea`jbg mu vrih phguljtiqug mg `j prgssg jvge `g mistriautguraistja`g 7/1;

    Edlljhmgljhug``g

    Edlljhmgljhug``gpjr pdussdir

    Qjppg` pjrrgssdrt

    Edlljhmg`getrdphguljtiqug

    Edlljhmghguljti ug

    Edlljhmg`getriqug

    istriautgurs sur `gur glajsg

    p: hdh jetidhhAp1 jetidhh

    rriv mg `jprgssidh

    rihmdua`g gffgt

    ghtrg mg `j tibg mu vrih

    p1 hdh jetidhh

    drtig mg `j tibg mu vrih

    Ap: etidhh

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    FDHE]IDH Mistriaugr==

    G ^ G Q E I E G H D H Q G U D @ W

    Mjhs uhg usihg mg fjariejtidh mg vditurgttgs lihijturg, dh msirg `g fdhetidhhglght suivjht ;

    @dprjtgur p`jeg sur uh bjajrit `g enssis, `gs gssigux mg rdugs jvjht gt jrrirg, jihsi qug `jedqug.

    @drsqug eg`j gst prt, i` jppuig sur uh adutdh pdussdir, eg qui j pdur gffgt mg fjirg mgseghmrg `gvrih mg sgrtissjbg, qui rgldhtg ms qui` gst jrriv gh adut mg edursg.

    Gh jppg`jhtV+ `g lduvglght mg sdrtig mg tibgV- `g lduvglght mg rghtrg mg tibgn `g ejptgur njuta `g ejptgur ajsl `g adutdh pdussdir,

    @j prglirg qujtidh serit ;V+ < n.l

    @j mguxilg qujtidh serit ;V-

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    =7

    Mjhs uh systlg jutdljtis, sduvght `j fihj`it mg `'jetidh sur `j ljtirg m'uvrg gst mghjturg lejhiqug. Suisqug `'hgrbig sduvght mispdhia`g gst `getriqug gt ldihs ghedrgphguljtiqug, j`drs i` fjut edhvgrtir egttg hgrbig mispdhia`g gh hgrbig lejhiqug ? md`uti`isjtidh mgs jetidhhgurs qui jssurght egttg fdhetidh mg edhvgrsidh.

    @j pdsitidh m'uhg tg``g fdhetidh mjhs uhg enjhg m'hgrbig, jihsi qug sj fdhetidh b`daj`gsdht rgprsghtgs pjr `gs fiburgs suivjhtgs ;

    Ghgrbig Srjetidhhgur Ghgrbig lejhiqugG`getriqug Ldtgur Qdtjtidh

    Shguljtiqug Vgrih ]rjhs`jtidh

    WHI]G JME

    FDHE]IDH

    D H V G Q ] I Q

    SQGUGH]J]IDH

    EDLSG]GHEGU J]]GHMWGU

    pjrtir mg tdut du pjrtig muh prdmuit suppdrt jvge sdh ejnigr mgs enjrbgs gt sdh mdssigrtgenhiqug ;

    Ghdhegr `g priheipg mg fdhetidhhglght muh edhvgrtissgur Lgttrg gh uvrg uh edhvgrtissgur

    ENJSI]QGU [email protected] MJHU @J FDHE]IDH EDHVGQ]IQ

    Edhvgrtissgur `getrdlejhiqug Edhvgrtissgur phguljtiqug Jutrgs typgs mg edhvgrtissgur

    [email protected]]GQ

    W H I ] G J M E

    ]QJHULG]]QG JBIQ

    Ljtirgmuvrg gh

    ghtrg

    Ljtirgmuvrg gh

    sdrtig

    hgrbigmghtrg

    Edhvgrtir`hgrbig

    E N J H G M H G Q B I G

    MIU]QIAWGQ EDHVGQ]IQ

    Ghgrbigmispdhia`g

    Ghgrbigmistriaug

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    FDHE]IDH E d h vgrt ir=6

    ENJSI]QG :

    EDHVGQ]IUUGWQ [email protected]]QDLGEJHIZWG

    IH]QDMWE]IDH ;

    Egst uh edhvgrtissgur pgrlgttjht mg edhvgrtir `hgrbig `getriqug (edurjhtedhtihu) gh rdtjtidh lejhiqug. Egst `g ldtgur `g p`us silp`g lgttrg ghuvrg. I` trduvg sdh uti`isjtidh, ghtrg jutrgs mjhs ;

    @`getrdhiqug mg fjia`g sibhjux (rjmid, vimgd, ghtrjhglght gh rdtjtidhmg `j pjrjad`g, gte.) ?

    @j trjetidh `getriqug.

    :. DQBJHIUJ]IDH MG @J LJENIHG ;

    Mjhs `drbjhisjtidh muhg ljenihg edurjht edhtihu, dhpgut mistihbugr `gs priheipjux `lghts suivjhts ;

    `gs p`gs ihmuetgurs jvge `gurs ghrdu`glghts du `gursjiljhts, p`jes bhrj`glght sur `g stjtdr (pjrtigfixg)

    `ihmuit, mdht `gs miffrghtgs vdigs mghrdu`glghtssdht edhhgetgs ju ed` getgur, `ghsgla`g tjhtbhrj`glght p`je sur `g rdtdr (pjrtig tdurhjhtg)

    `gs drbjhgs lejhiqugs pgrlgttjht `j rdtjtidh murdtdr gt `g ljihtigh mgs miffrghts sdus ghsgla`gs.

    1. SQIHEISG MG FDHE]IDHHGLGH] ;

    1.:. @di mg @jp`jeg ;

    Wh edhmuetgur trjvgrs pjr uh edurjht gt p`je mjhs uh enjlp ljbhtiqug gst sdulis uhg fdregmdht `g sghs gst mtgrlih pjr `j rb`g mgs trdis mdibts mg `j ljih mrditg.

    F < A x I x @

    F ; Fdreg gh HgwtdhsA ; Ihmuetidh ljbhtiqug gh tgs jsI ; Ihtghsit mjhs `g edhmuetgur gh [email protected] ; @dhbugur mu edhmuetgur gh ltrgs

    Sdur mtgrlihgr `g sghs mg `j fdreg, i` fjut p`jegr `gs trdis mdibts(pdueg, ihmgx, ljkgur) pgrpghmieu`jirglght ghtrg gux.

    @g pdueg sg p`jeg mjhs `g sghs mu enjlp (`g sghs mgs `ibhgs m'ihmuetidh gst tdukdurs mu H ju U `'gxtrigur m'uh jiljht gt mu U ju H `'ihtrigur).

    @g ljkgursg p`jeg mjhs `g sghs mu edurjht (sghs edhvghtidhhg` tdukdurs mu + vgrs `g -).

    @'ihmgxmtgrlihg j`drs `g sghs mg `j fdreg.

    Utjtdr Qdtdr

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    E n j p itrg : E d h vgrt is s gu r `ge trd l e j hiq u g =2

    1.1. Sriheipg mg fdhetidhhglght muh ldtgur edurjht edhtihu ;

    @drsqug `'dh p`jeg uhg spirg pjredurug pjr uh edurjht (breg jux aj`jis gt ju ed``getgur) mjhs uhenjlp ljbhtiqug, i` jppjrjt uh edup`g mg fdregs. Eg edup`g mg fdregs erg uh edup`g mg rdtjtidh quifjit mvigr `j spirg mg p`us du ldihs 93 mgbrs pjr rjppdrt ju p`jh vgrtiej`, `g sghs mu edurjht rgstjhtihenjhb mjhs `j spirg, ju edurs mg eg mp`jeglght, `g edup`g mg rdtjtidh milihug edhstjllghtkusqu' sjhhu`gr jprs rdtjtidh mg `j adaihg mg p`us du ldihs 93 mgbrs ( zdhg hgutrg, `j spirg sgtrduvg `'ndrizdhtj`g gt pgrpghmieu`jirg jux jiljhts hjturg`s).

    Jfih m'datghir uhg rdtjtidh sjhs edup, `'ghrdu`glght mihmuit mdit trg edhstitu m'uh hdlarg `gv

    mg spirgs sili`jirgs. Eg``gs-ei sgrdht rpjrtigs mg fjdh rbu`irgs sur `g rdtdr (ihmuit), mg ljhirg datghir uh edup`g ihmpghmjht mg `jhb`g mg rdtjtidh. Jprs `g pjssjbg mg `j zdhg hgutrg, `g sghs muedurjht mdit trg ihvgrs silu`tjhlght mjhs enjeuhg mg egs spirgs.

    @'ihvgrsidh mu edurjht gst dprg pjr `ihvgrsgur du edllutjtgur (ed``getgur) qui, jssdei ju aj`jis,edhstitug `'`lght jssurjht `j trjhslissidh mu edurjht mg `j pjrt