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    Geographical IndicationsGeographical Indications

    An Indian PerspectiveAn Indian Perspective

    Sanjay KumarSanjay Kumar

    33rdrd May 2006May 2006

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    Scope of PresentationScope of Presentation

    GeographicalGeographical IndicationsIndications IntroductionIntroduction

    CurrentCurrent InternationalInternational debatedebate onon

    GeographicalGeographical IndicationsIndications

    OverviewOverview ofof thethe IndianIndian GIGI registrationregistration


    GeographicalGeographical IndicationsIndications asas aa tooltool forfor

    developingdeveloping countriescountries

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    Intellectual PropertyIntellectual Property

    Outcomeofones intellectual effortsOutcomeofones intellectual efforts

    Different from other forms of propertyDifferent from other forms of property

    Incentive to createIncentive to create rewardreward

    Advantage in CompetitionAdvantage in Competition -- creates Monopoly rightcreates Monopoly right

    Sources of IP LawSources of IP Law

    Article 38Article 38 ICJICJ

    Treaty LawTreaty Law

    Customary International LawCustomary International Law

    Precedents and DoctrinesPrecedents and Doctrines

    General principles of lawGeneral principles of law

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    TRIPS AgreementTRIPS Agreement

    Copyright and related rightsCopyright and related rights

    Trade marksTrade marks

    Geographical Indications (GIs)Geographical Indications (GIs) Industrial designsIndustrial designs


    Layout designs of integrated circuitsLayout designs of integrated circuits

    Protection of undisclosed informationProtection of undisclosed information

    Control of antiControl of anti--competitive practices in contractualcompetitive practices in contractual


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    GIsGIs the conceptthe concept

    GIsGIs areare essentiallyessentially thethe DNADNA ofof NatureNatureimpregnatedimpregnated intointo thethe MotherMother EarthEarth

    difficultdifficult toto cloneclone andand beyondbeyondscientificscientific calculationcalculation..

    GIsGIs areare aboutabout culture,culture, geography,geography,

    traditions,traditions, heritageheritage andand traditionaltraditionalpracticespractices ofof peoplepeople andand countriescountries..

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    Geographical IndicationsGeographical Indications

    AnyAny nounnoun oror adjectiveadjective (need(need notnot

    necessarilynecessarily bebe aa geographicalgeographical name)name)

    thatthat designatesdesignates geographicalgeographical locationlocation

    andand wouldwould tendtend toto bebe regardedregarded byby

    buyersbuyers asas descriptivedescriptive ofof thethe

    geographicalgeographical locationlocation ofof originorigin ofof


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    GIs and Developing CountriesGIs and Developing Countries

    Instrument of Rural Development - promotion of productshaving certain characteristics could be of considerable benefitto the rural economy, in particular to less-favored or remoteareas, by improving the incomes of farmers and by retainingthe rural population in these areas (EC Regulation 2081/92) e.g. Italian Tuscan Olive Oil sold at premium ever since itsregistration in 1998.

    Differentiation of products can lead to:

    Increase in prices of the protected products

    Allows genuine producers to capture the rents, entrybarriers for fakes

    More Antiguan Coffee and Darjeeling Tea sold than produced -shows large market for genuine products.

    Issue is whether the framework is appropriate for developingcountries.

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    What is the GI extension issue?What is the GI extension issue?

    oo ArticleArticle 2222 dealsdeals withwith GIsGIs atat aa generalgenerallevellevel..

    oo ArticleArticle 2323 offersoffers anan additionaladditional levellevel ofofprotectionprotection toto winewine andand spiritspirit GIsGIs

    oo AdditionalAdditional levellevel meansmeans thatthat membermemberstatesstates areare toto protectprotect againstagainst incorrectincorrectusageusage ofof thethe relevantrelevant GIGI eveneven withoutwithoutthethe requirementrequirement ofof deceptiondeception andandconfusionconfusion

    oo UnderUnder ArticleArticle 2222 theythey areare toto protectprotectagainstagainst misleadingmisleading andand incorrectincorrectusageusage..

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    To illustrate.To illustrate.

    ArticleArticle 2222

    oo TheThe expressionexpression IndianIndianGruyereGruyere cheesecheeseactionableactionable onlyonly onon

    provingproving thatthat::

    GruyereGruyere asas aa cheesecheeseisis wellwell knownknown ininIndiaIndia

    TheThe saidsaid expressionexpression

    wouldwould bebe misleadingmisleadingasas toto geographicalgeographicaloriginorigin

    ArticleArticle 2323

    oo TheThe expressionexpression IndianIndian



    MerelyMerely onon thethe

    groundground thatthat suchsuch

    usageusage isis incorrectincorrect

    (despite(despite thethe dede--

    localizinglocalizing factorfactorIndian)Indian)

    NotNot necessarynecessary toto

    proveprove thatthat itit isis wellwell--

    knownknown inin IndiaIndia..

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    What is so unfair about Art. 23?What is so unfair about Art. 23?

    InIn thethe samesame provisionprovision dealingdealing withwith oneone typetype ofof product,product,therethere areare twotwo levelslevels ofof protectionprotection..

    BenefitsBenefits toto onlyonly winewine producingproducing countriescountries mostmost ofof themthem

    areare developeddeveloped countriescountries MostMost developingdeveloping countriescountries dodo notnot havehave wineswines asas aa majormajor

    revenuerevenue earningearning productproduct mostlymostly theirtheir productsproducts arearehandicrafts,handicrafts, rice,rice, teatea coffee,coffee, spicesspices etcetc..

    TheirTheir economieseconomies areare heavilyheavily dependantdependant onon suchsuch productsproducts

    GivenGiven thethe disparities,disparities, thesethese productsproducts mightmight findfind itit difficultdifficulttoto competecompete inin internationalinternational marketsmarkets

    TakeTake thethe casecase ofof IndiaIndia whichwhich hashas aa diversitydiversity inin everyevery areaarea bebe itit culture,culture, traditions,traditions, food,food, artart forms,forms, craftscrafts..

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    Practical effects of protection under Article 23Practical effects of protection under Article 23

    Wine and spirit GIs get an additional level of protection andwill never become generic once protected

    Other GI owners have to invest huge resources to defendtheir GIs in foreign markets

    WTO members can also enter into negotiations for increasedlevel of protection of wine and spirit GIs with other memberswithout letting the exceptions in Article 24 affecting them

    For instance, if France wants to hold negotiations with USfor Champagne, US cant use Art. 24.4 exception

    Whereas if India wants to hold negotiations with the US

    for Darjeeling or Basmati misuse, US can use the 24.4 and24.5 exceptions

    The protection offered to GIs under TRIPS amounts to havingdouble standards

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    Indian GI Act FrameworkIndian GI Act Framework

    GIsGIs cancan bebe grantedgranted toto anan individual,individual, aa family,family, aa partnership,partnership,aa corporation,corporation, aa voluntaryvoluntary associationassociation etcetc oror anyanyorganizationorganization oror authorityauthority establishedestablished byby oror underunder anyany lawlawforfor thethe timetime beingbeing inin forceforce representingrepresenting thethe interestinterest ofof thetheproducersproducers ofof thethe concernedconcerned goodsgoods..

    GIsGIs protectprotect andand rewardreward traditionstraditions whilewhile allowingallowing forforproductsproducts toto evolveevolve overover timetime

    GIsGIs cancan bebe protectedprotected overover longlong periodsperiods asas longlong asas thethecollectivecollective traditiontradition isis maintainedmaintained

    IndianIndian ActAct protectsprotects GIsGIs forfor anan initialinitial periodperiod ofof 1010 years,years,whichwhich cancan bebe renewedrenewed afterafter thethe expiryexpiry ofof thethe initialinitialperiodperiod ofof protectionprotection forfor anotheranother 1010 yearsyears

    GIsGIs wouldwould ceasecease toto bebe onon thethe registerregister ifif notnot renewedrenewed sixsixmonthsmonths afterafter thethe expirationexpiration ofof thethe lastlast registrationregistration

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    Indias famous GIsIndias famous GIs

    BanarasiBanarasi silkssilks PaschminaPaschmina shawlsshawls KashmirKashmircarpetscarpets BasmatiBasmati ricerice

    DarjeelingDarjeeling teatea AssamAssam teatea BengalBengal CottonCotton AlphonsoAlphonso MangoesMangoes PochampalliPochampalli silksilk ChanderiChanderi silksilk

    Hyderabad pearlsHyderabad pearls Kerala Nendran bananasKerala Nendran bananas Jaipur silver jewelleryJaipur silver jewellery

    NilgiriNilgiri teatea CoorgCoorg coffeecoffee MysoreMysore sandal productssandal products MysoreMysore silksilk

    MalabarMalabarpepperpepper KancheepuramKancheepuram silkssilks Lonawala chikisLonawala chikis (food stuff)(food stuff) NilgiriNilgiri teatea Coir products fromCoir products from KeralaKerala Cardamom fromCardamom from KeralaKerala

    AranmulaAranmula mirrorsmirrors Nagpur orangesNagpur oranges Phulkari embroidery workPhulkari embroidery work

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    Geographical Indication Product State Dateof


    Darjeeling Tea Tea West Bengal 29.10.04

    Pochampally Ikat Textile Andhra Pradesh 31.12.04

    Chanderi saree Textile Guna, 28.01.05

    Madhya Pradesh

    Kotpad Handloom fabric Textile Koraput, Orissa 02.06.05

    Kota Doria Textiles Kota, Rajasthan 05.07.05

    Kancheepuram silk Textiles Tamil Nadu 02.06.05

    Bhavani Jamakkalam Textile, carpets Erode,Tamil Nadu 05.07.05

    Mysore Agarbathi Incense sticks Mysore, Karnataka 02.06.05

    Aranmula Kannadi Metal Mirror Kerala 19.09.05

    Salem Fabric Textiles Tamil Nadu 19.09.05

    Solapur Chaddar Textiles Maharashtra 19.09.05

    Solapur Terry Towel Textiles Maharashtra 19.09.05

    Mysore Silk Textiles Karnataka 28.11.05

    Kullu Shawl Textiles Himachal Pradesh 12.12.05

    Madurai Sungudi Textiles Tamil Nadu 12.12.05

    Kangra Tea Tea Himachal Pradesh 12.12.05

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    Geographical Indication Product State Dateof


    Coorg Orange HorticultureProduct

    Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Mysore Betel Leaf HorticultureProduct

    Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Nanjanagud Banana Horticulture


    Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Mysore Sandalwood Oil Essential Oil Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Mysore Sandal Soap Soap Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Bidriware Handicrafts Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Channapatna Toys and Dolls Handicrafts Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Coimbatore Wet Grinder Wet Grinder Tamil Nadu 30.01.2006

    Mysore Rosewood Inlay Handicrafts Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Kasuti Embroidery Embroidery(Textiles)

    Karnataka 30.01.2006

    Mysore Traditional Paintings Paintings Karnataka 30.01.2006

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    Case of Basmati RiceCase of Basmati Rice

    BasBas Aroma,Aroma, BasmatiBasmati AromaticAromatic RiceRice

    ProductionProduction areaarea beltbelt onon NorthernNorthern IndiaIndia

    andand adjacentadjacent partpart ofof PakistanPakistan UniqueUnique CharacteristicsCharacteristics longlong graingrain

    (increases(increases substantiallysubstantially onon cooking),cooking),distinctivedistinctive aromaaroma andand tastetaste..

    EffortsEfforts toto usurpusurp thethe GIGI CaseCase forfor jointjoint registrationregistration IndiaIndia andand


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    GI Registration in SAARCGI Registration in SAARC

    EconomicEconomic potentialpotential untappeduntapped

    ProductsProducts similaritysimilarity -- distinctivedistinctive signssigns forfor distinctdistinctproductsproducts

    NeedNeed toto addressaddress territorialityterritoriality -- SAARCSAARC cooperationcooperationneededneeded

    NeedNeed toto protectprotect atat homehome essentialessential clauseclause ofof

    TRIPSTRIPS AgreementAgreement -- GIGI registrationregistration notnot inin itselfitself cancanprotectprotect valuablevaluable reputationreputation..

    NeedNeed toto taketake thisthis asas aa developmentdevelopment issueissue

    RoleRole ofof thethe GovernmentsGovernments

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    Thank You !!!Thank You !!!