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UNIFR PHILOSOPHIE MDIVALE Catherine Knig-Pralong
Sminaire de lecture en version originale Automne 2008
Roger Bacon Lerreur, lautorit et les savoirs
Opus maius, Prima pars
Bibliographie sommaire [Pour une bibliographie plus complte, aller la fin de larticle de J. Hackett joint ce document]
Outils Une grammaire latine se rvlera trs utile, par exemple cet ouvrage ddi au latin mdival : M. GOULLET M. PARISSE, Traduire le latin mdival. Manuel pour grands commenants, Paris, Librairie
Picard, 2005. Le dictionnaire de base sera toujours : F. GAFFIOT, Dictionnaire latin franais, Paris, Hachette, 1934 [nombreuses rditions]. Pour le latin mdival, on consultera aussi lun ou lautre de ces dictionnaires : A. BLAISE, Dictionnaire latin-franais des auteurs chrtiens, Turnhout, Brepols, 2me d., 1967. A. BLAISE, Dictionnaire latin-franais des auteurs du Moyen Age, Turnhout, Brepols, 1975. J. Fr. NIERMEYER, Mediae latinitatis lexicon minus, Leyde, Brill, 1976.
Source Opus maius, 3 Vols., ed. John Henry Bridges, Oxford and Edinburgh. (Vols. 1 & 2, Oxford (1897),
Vol. 3 with corrections, Edinburgh, 1900. Reprint, Frankfurt Am Main: Minerva, 1964.
Littrature secondaire BOURGAIN, Pascale, Le sens de la langue et des langues chez Roger Bacon, in Genevive
CONTAMINE (d.), Traduction et traducteurs au Moyen ge, Paris, CNRS, 1989, p. 317-329. HEDWIG, Klaus, Roger Bacons Scientia experimentalis, in Theo Kobush (d.), Philosophen des
Mittelalters, Darmstadt, Primus, 2000, p. 140-51. HACKETT, Jeremiah (d.), Roger Bacon and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays,
Leiden, Brill, 1997. HACKETT, Jeremiah (d.), Roger Bacon and Aristotelianism, = Vivarium 35.2, 1997. HACKETT, Jeremiah (d.), Philosophy and theology in Roger Bacons Opus maius, in R. James
LONG, Philosophy and the God of Abraham. Essays in Memory of James A. Weisheipl, Toronto, Pontifical Institute, 1991, p. 55-69.
MALONEY, Thomas S., The Semiotics of Roger Bacon, Medieval Studies, 45, 1983, p. 120-154. LARDET, Pierre, Un lecteur de Jrme au XIIIe sicle : langues et traduction chez Roger Bacon, in
Yves-Marie DUVAL (d.), Jrme entre lOccident et lOrient, Paris, tudes augustiniennes, 1988, p. 445-463.
LEMAY, Richard, Roger Bacons attitude toward the Latin translations and translators of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, in HACKETT, Jeremiah (d.), Roger Bacon and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays, p. 25-47.
POWER, Amanda, 2006, A Mirror for Every Age: The Reputation of Roger Bacon, The English Historical Review, 2006, 121/492, p. 657-692.
ROSIER, Irne, La Parole Comme Acte: Sur la grammaire et la smantique au XIIIe sicle, Paris, J. Vrin, 1994.
Jeremiah HACKETT Roger Bacon, in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,
First published Thu Apr 19, 2007 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/roger-bacon/
Roger Bacon (1214/12201292), Master of Arts, University of Paris, later Franciscan Friar was one of the earliest witnesses to the reception of Aristotle at Paris soon after the lifting of the Condemnations of 1210, 1215, 1231. Trained in Logic and Natural Philosophy at Oxford he was a contemporary of Albert the Great and William of Auvergne at Paris in the 1240s. Sometime after 1247/8, he became an independent scholar with an interest in languages and experimental-scientific concerns. Between 1247 and 1267, Bacon mastered most of the Greek and Islamic texts on Optics. He had expected to get a teaching position on becoming a Franciscan friar ca. 1257. He was to be disappointed. Because he regarded the following ten years as an exile from teaching, he sought the Patronage of Cardinal Guy le Gros de Foulque (Pope Clement V, November 1265-1268). On the instruction of the Pope, June 22, 1266, Bacon quickly wrote an introductory work, the Opus maius and the related works Opus minus and Opus tertium. He set out his own new model for a system of philosophical studies that would incorporate language studies and science studies then unavailable at the Universities. He succeeded in setting out a model of an experimental science on the basis of his study of Optics (Perspectiva). He does this in a new context: the application of linguistic and scientific knowledge for a better understanding of Theology and in the service of the Res publica Christiana. It would appear that Bacon was condemned by his Order in 1278 on account of certain suspected novelties. This may have been due to his interests in astrology and alchemy. Bonaventure and John Pecham were among his first readers and the former in particular was critical of his interests in astrology and alchemy. Bacon, however, found a sympathetic reader and interpreter in the great scholar of the Sorbonne, Peter of Limoges (d. 1306). Through the latter, Bacon may have influenced Raymond Lull. Bacon returned to Oxford about 1280, where he completed his edition with introduction and notes of the Secretum secretorum, a Latin translation of the Arabic text on the education of the Prince, the Sirr-al-asrar. He believed it to be a work by Aristotle for Alexander the Great. He died at Oxford ca. 1292.
1. Modern Research on Roger Bacon 2. Life and Works 3. Bacon's early work on Grammar and Logic
o 3.1 Summa grammatica o 3.2 Summa de sophismatibus et distinctionibus (SSD) o 3.3 Sumulae dialectics (SD)
4. Bacon as an Aristotelian Commentator o 4.1 Roger Bacon and Richard Rufus: In physicam Aristotelis o 4.2 Bacon and Grosseteste: Knowledge, Science and Intuition o 4.3 Bacon on Matter o 4.4 Bacon on Universals and Individuation o 4.5 Bacon's Realism: On the Way to late Medieval Nominalism? o 4.6 Bacon on Body, Soul and Mind: Early Works o 4.7 Bacon on Body, Soul, Mind: Later Works
5. Bacon's Later Philosophy: Language Study and Science in the service of both Moral Philosophy and Theology
o 5.1 Background o 5.2 Opus maius/Parts One and Two o 5.2 Opus maius/Part Three: On Language, De signis and Compendium Studii
philosophiae o 5.4 Opus maius/Parts Four, Five and Six: Mathematics and Philosophy of Nature (De
multiplicatione specierum, Perspectiva, Scientia Experimentalis) o 5.5 Opus maius/Part Seven: Moralis philosophia o 5.6 Bacon's political philosophy: the Secretum secretorum
6. Conclusion Bibliography
o Primary Sources o Secondary Sources
Other Internet Resources Related Entries
1. Modern Research on Roger Bacon
Modern understanding of the Philosophy of Roger Bacon is largely conditioned by two distinct traditions of interpretation from the nineteenth century. The first is the study of the physical, metaphysical, and related works of Bacon. Discovered in 1848 by Victor Cousin in Amiens MS 406, these works were edited by Robert Steele and Ferdinand Delorme (OHI, 1905-1940) . With the exception, however, of the teaching on the soul, some aspects of Bacon's theory of matter and form, the doctrine of experientia/experimentum, and the doctrines of universals and individuation, the content of these works has remained largely unstudied until present times. One can argue that critical scholarly study of these works has just begun.
The second and more well-known interpretation of Roger Bacon as a scientist is found in nineteenth and twentieth century writers on science and has a solid basis in Bacon's own work, for example, the edition of the Opus tertium by J.S. Brewer [OQHI]. Bacon tells us that around 1247/8 he departed normal Arts teaching to devote himself to language study and the sciences. Bacon's Perspectiva (1267) [PRSP, 1996] presents a model for an experimental science that ushered in a new addition to the traditional Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music) in the new universities of the Latin West, namely, the study of Optics. There has been significant modern research on this aspect of Bacon's work. In fact, for the first time in the history of Bacon scholarship, we now have accurate texts, with adequate matching geometrical diagrams for the scientific works (post 1260). The early works (ca. 1240-1250) have need of new critical editions. .
In 1859, William Whewell set the tone for this modern account of Roger Bacon and the Sciences (Whewell, 1858, p.245). He viewed Bacon as an advocate of experiment ahead of his time. In the late nineteenth century, Robert Adamson and many others interpreted Bacon as a philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term This understanding of Roger Bacon did not begin in the nineteenth century. Already in the late Renaissance, Francis Bacon had characterized Roger Bacon as an exceptional figure among the schoolmen. Francis Bacon held that Roger Bacon had set aside the scholastic disputations of his times and engaged in the mechanical understanding of the secrets of nature.
In the 1900s, Thorndike [LT1; LT2] and Duhem [LSDM, III, 442] asserted that the role of observation in Bacon's science was minimal and added nothing to his idea of a science. In the post-World War II years, A.C. Crombie (1953) argued that the qualitative aspects of modern science originated at
Oxford in the early thirteenth century, specifically in the work of Grosseteste and Roger Bacon. This interpretation received a critical response from Alexander Koyr (1957) and others. It was argued that Crombie read back some aspects of modern scientific method into the works of Grosseteste and Bacon. Thomas S. Kuhn (1976), however, maintained that Crombie did identify a real methodological connection between medieval and early modern science. The studies and editorial work of David C. Lindberg on Bacon's natural philosophy, for example, De multiplicatione specierum (DMS) and Perspectiva [PRSP] emphasized the need to read Roger Bacon as a medieval scientist a