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    ethnocentrism the tendency of any nation, race, religion or group to believe that its way of

    looking at and doing things is right and that other perspectives have less value.

    stereotypes generalized pictures of a race, gender or group that supposedly represent its

    essential characteristics.

    source the originator of a message

    encoder the speaker's voice

    message the words, nonverbal cues, and presentation aids that convey the speaker's ideas,

    motives and feelings toward a subject.

    channel air or medium through which the message flows.

    receiver the audience; those for whom the message is intended and in anticipation of

    whom the message is shaped.

    decoder process by which the listener determines the meaning of the speaker's message

    noise sometimes called interference, this can indicate a range of problems from physical

    noise such as distracting sounds in the room to psychological noise (stereotypes,

    distractions, cultural barriers, etc.) in listeners that can distort or even block the

    reception of the message.

    feedback speaker's perception of how audience members react to the message both during

    and after its presentationsetting physical and psychological context in which a speech is presented

    identification the feeling of closeness between speakers and listeners that may overcome

    personal and cultural differences, the feeling of sharing or closeness that can

    develop between speakers and listeners

    responsible

    knowledge

    an understanding of the major features, issues, information, latest developments

    and local applications relevant to a topic

    quoting out of

    context

    an unethical use of quotation that changes or distorts the original speaker's

    meaning or intent by not including parts of the quote

    plagiarism presenting the ideas and words of others without crediting them as sources

    communication

    anxiety

    the range of unpleasant sensations and fears you may experience before or during

    a presentationanticipatory

    anxiety

    the fear of public speaking that occurs before the actual presentation of a speech

    anxiety sensitivity the tendency to label weak symptoms of anxiety as fear and then to over-respond

    to them

    perfectionism believing that you must be perfect to be effective

    presentation

    anxiety

    the fear reactions that occur during the presentation of a speech

    selective

    relaxation

    the technique of tightening and relaxing muscles on command, used to help

    reduce communication anxiety

    communication

    orientation

    looking at public speaking as an interactive communication event rather than as a

    performance

    cognitive

    restructuring

    the process of replacing negative thoughts with positive, constructive ones

    visualization the process of systematically picturing oneself succeeding as a speaker and

    practicing a speech with that image in mind

    skills training developing speaking abilities that help speakers control communication

    apprehension

    dialogue having the characters in a narrative speak for themselves, rather than paraphrasing

    what they say

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    transitions connecting elements used in transitions

    extemporaneous

    presentation

    a form of presentation in which a speech, although carefully prepared and

    practiced, is not written out or memorized

    key-word outline an abbreviated version of a formal outline that may be used in presenting a speech

    ethos those characteristics that make a speaker appear honest, credible, powerful and

    appealing

    competence the perception of a speaker as being informed, intelligent and well-prepared

    integrity the quality of being ethical, honest and dependable

    goodwill the dimension of ethos by which listeners perceive a speaker as having their best

    interests at heart

    dynamism the perception of a speaker as confident, decisive and enthusiastic

    self-awareness

    inventory

    a series of questions that a speaker can ask to develop an approach to a speech of

    introduction

    hearing an automatic, involuntary process in which sound waves stimulate nerve impulses

    to the brain

    discriminative

    listening

    phase of listening in which we detect sounds of spoken communication

    comprehensivelistening

    phase of listening in which we focus on, understand and interpret spokenmessages

    empathic listening phase of listening in which we suspend judgment, allow speakers to be heard, and

    try to see things from their points of view

    appreciative

    listening

    phase of listening in which we enjoy the beauty of messages, responding to such

    factors as the simplicity, balance and the eloquence of language.

    critical listening listening with careful analysis and evaluation of message content

    constructive

    listening

    search for the value that messages may have for your life, despite their defects

    receiver

    apprehension

    fear of misinterpreting, inadequately processing and/or not being able to adjust

    psychologically to messages sent by others

    trigger words words that arouse such powerful feelings that they may interfere with the abilityto listen critically and constructively

    filtering listening to only part of a message, the part the listener wants to hear

    assimilation the tendency of listeners to interpret the positions of a speaker with whom they

    agree as closer to their own views than they actually are

    contrast effect seeing positions different than yours as being more distant than they actually are

    facts information that can be verified by observation or expert testimony

    inferences assumptions based on incomplete information

    opinions expressions of personal attitude or belief offered without supporting material

    demagogues political speakers who try to inflame feelings without regard to the accuracy or

    inadequacy of their claims in order to promote their own agendas

    critique an evaluation of a speech that emphasizes strengths as well as weaknesses and

    that focuses on how a speaker might improve

    audience

    demographics

    observable characteristics of listeners, including age, gender, educational level,

    group affiliations, and sociocultural backgrounds

    audience

    dynamics

    the motivations, attitudes, beliefs and values that influence the behavior of

    listeners

    attitudes feelings we have developed toward specific kinds of subjects

    beliefs what we know or think we know about subjects

    values the moral principles that suggest how we should behave or what we should see as

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    an ideal state of being

    sexism allowing gender stereotypes to control interactions with members of the opposite

    sex

    gender

    stereotyping

    generalizations based on oversimplified or outmoded assumptions about gender

    roles

    sexist language making gender references in situations in which the gender is unknown or

    irrelevant, or using masculine nouns or pronouns when the intended reference is

    to both sexes

    symbolic racism an indirect form of racism that employs ode words and subtle, unspoken contrast

    to suggest that one race is superior to another

    preliminary

    tuning effect

    the effect of previous speeches or other situational factors in predisposing an

    audience to respond positively or negatively to a speech

    discovery phase phase of the process of finding speech topics that identifies large topic areas

    exploration phase phase of the process of finding speech topics that involves the close examination

    of large topic areas to identify more precise topics that might be developed

    refinement phase identifying the general and specific purposes of a speech topic and framing its

    thesis statement

    brainstorming technique that encourages the free play of the mindtopoi of topic

    discovery

    probe questions used to stimulate the mind during topic exploration, centering on

    places, people, activities, things, events, ideas, values, problems, and campus

    concerns.

    interest chart visual display of a speaker's interests, as prompted by certain probe questions

    topic area

    inventory chart

    a means of determining possible speech topics by listing topics you find interesting

    and subjects your audience finds interesting, and then matching them

    media prompts sources such as newspapers, magazines, and the electronic media that can suggest

    ideas for speech topics

    mind mapping changes customary patterns of thinking in order to free our minds for creative

    exploration

    topic analysis using questions often employed by journalists to explore topic possibilities forspeeches (who, what, why, when, where, and how)

    general purpose the speaker's overall intention to inform or persuade listeners, or to celebrate

    some person or occupation

    specific purpose the speaker's particular goal or the response that the speaker wishes to evoke

    thesis statement sometimes called the "central idea," it summarizes in a single sentence the

    message of your speech

    topic briefing prospectus for a speech or series of speeches you propose to give

    information

    literacy

    the skills one needs to locate information efficiently and to evaluate what one

    learns

    responsible

    knowledge

    an understanding of the major features, issues, information, latest developments

    and local applications relevant to a topic

    general search

    engine

    an internet search engine that allows you to enter a key-word and find related

    Web sites

    metasearch

    engine

    a search engine that combines the results from several search engines

    subject directory an organized list of links to Web sites on specific topics

    Invisible web high-quality databases generally not included in the searches conducted by general

    or metasearch engines

    Boolean search techniques that can help one limit or expand research on the Internet (and, or,

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    not)

    advocacy Web

    site

    A Web site whose major purpose is to change attitudes or behaviors

    authority criterion for evaluating the credentials of the author

    accuracy criterion for evaluating the correctness of information by checking it against other

    information

    objectivity criterion for evaluating whether or not a source is free from bias

    currency criterion for evaluating whether or not the information on a Web site is up-to-date

    coverage criterion for evaluating the breadth of information on a topic

    probes questions that ask someone being interviewed to elaborate on a response

    mirror questions questions that repeat part of a previous response to encourage further discussion

    verifier a statement by an interviewer confirming the meaning of what has just been said

    by the person being interviewed

    reinforcer a comment or action that encourages further communication from someone being

    interviewed

    source cards Records kept of the author, title, place and date of publication, and page

    references for each research source

    information cards research notes on facts and ideas obtained from an article or booksupporting

    materials

    the fats and figures, testimony, examples, and narratives that are the building

    blocks of successful speeches

    facts information that can be verified by observation or expert testimony

    statistics numerical information

    disinformation deliberately false, fragmented, irrelevant, or superficial information designed to

    influence policies or opinions

    definition a translation of an unfamiliar word into understandable terms

    explanation discussion that helps clarify a topic or demonstrates how a process works

    descriptions word pictures that help listeners visualize what you are talking about

    testimony citing the opinions or conclusions of other people or institutions to clarify, support

    and strengthen a pointexpert testimony offers judgments from those who are qualified by training or experience to speak

    as authorities on a subject

    reluctant

    testimony

    highly credible form of supporting material in which sources speak against their

    apparent self-interest

    lay testimony citing the views of ordinary people on a subject

    prestige

    testimony

    citing the views of someone who is highly regarded, but not necessarily an expert

    on a topic

    direct quotation repeating the exact words of another to support a point

    paraphrase summarizing in your own words something said or written

    quoting out of

    context

    an unethical use of a quotation that changes or distorts the original speaker's

    meaning or intent by not including parts of the quote

    examples verbal illustrations of the speaker's points

    brief example using a concise instance or allusion to illustrate or develop a point

    extended

    example

    a detailed illustration that allows a speaker to build impressions

    factual example an illustration based on something that actually happened or that really exists

    hypothetical

    example

    a representation of reality, usually a synthesis of actual people, situations or events

    narrative a story used to illustrate some important truth

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    embedded

    narrative

    stories inserted within speeches that illustrate the speaker's point

    vicarious

    experience

    narrative

    speech strategy in which the speaker invites listeners to imagine themselves

    enacting a story

    master narrative form of speaking in which the entire speech becomes a story that reveals some

    important truth

    narrative

    coherence

    whether a narrative or story flows well and fits together smoothly

    narrative fidelity whether a narrative seems true and makes sense

    comparison using supporting material to point out the similarities of an unfamiliar or

    controversial issue to something the audience already knows or accepts

    contrast arranging supporting materials to highlight differences or gaining attention by

    using abrupt changes in presentation, dwelling upon opposites, or framing the pros

    and cons of a situation

    analogy a connection established between two otherwise dissimilar ideas or things

    literal analogy a comparison made between subjects within the same filed

    figurative analogy a comparison made between things that belong to different fieldssimplicity suggests that a speech has a limited number of main points and that they are short

    and direct

    balance suggests that the introduction, body and conclusion receive their proper share of

    the time allotted for the speech

    order a consistent pattern used to develop a speech

    main points the most prominent ideas of the speaker's message

    research overview a listing of the main sources of information that could be used in a speech and of

    the major ideas from each source

    prologue an opening that establishes the context and setting of a narrative, foreshadows the

    meaning and introduces major characters

    plot the body of a speech that follows narrative design,; unfolds in sequence of scenesdesigned to build suspense

    epilogue the final part of a narrative that reflects upon its meaning

    transitions connecting elements used in speeches

    internal summary a transition that reminds listeners of major points already presented in a speech

    before proceeding to new ideas

    rhetorical

    questions

    questions that have a self-evident answer, or that provoke curiosity that the

    speech then proceeds to satisfy

    preview the part of the introduction that identifies the main points to be developed in the

    body of the speech and presents an overview of the speech to follow

    summary the speaker's reinterpretation of the speech's main ideas at the end of a

    presentation

    metaphor brief, concentrated form of comparison that is implied and often surprising. It

    connects elements of experience that are not usually related in order to create a

    new perspective.

    working outline a tentative plan showing the pattern of a speech's major parts, their relative

    importance, and the way they fit together

    subpoints the major divisions of a speech's main points

    sub-subpoints divisions of subpoints within a speech

    formal outline the final outline in a process leading from the first rough ideas for a speech to the

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    finished product

    coordination the requirement that statements equal in importance be placed on the same level

    in an outline

    subordination the requirement that material in an outline descend in importance from main

    points to subpoints to sub-subpoints to sub-sub-subpoints

    parallel

    construction

    wording points in a similar fashion to emphasize their importance and to help the

    audience remember them

    source citation references in a speech to sources used

    works cited a form of bibliography in an outline that lists those sources of supporting material

    actually used in the speech

    works consulted a form of bibliography that lists all sources of research considered in the

    preparation of the speech

    key-word outline an abbreviated version of a formal outline that may be used in presenting a speech

    presentation aids visual and auditory illustrations intended to enhance the clarity and effectiveness

    of a presentation

    graphics visual representations of information, such as sketches, maps, graphs, charts and

    textual materials

    pie graph a circle graph that shows the size of a subject's parts in relation to each other andto the whole

    bar graph a graph that shows comparisons and contrasts between two or more items or

    groups

    line graph a visual representation of changes across time; especially useful for indicating

    trends of growth or decline

    flow chart a visual method of representing power and responsibility relationships, or

    describing the steps in a process

    textual graphics visuals that contain words, phrases, or numbers

    bulleted list a presentation aid that highlights ideas by presenting them as a list of brief

    statements

    acronym a word composed of the initial letters of a series of wordsflip chart a large, unlined tablet, usually a newsprint pad, that is placed on an easel so that

    each page can be flipped over the top when it's full

    computer-assisted

    presentation

    the use of commercial presentation software to join audio, visual, textual, graphic,

    and animated components

    analogous color

    scheme

    colors adjacent on the color wheel; used in a presentation aid to suggest both

    differences and close relationships among the components

    complementary

    color scheme

    colors opposite one another on the color wheel; used in a presentation aid to

    suggest tension and opposition

    monochromatic

    color scheme

    use of variations of a single color in a presentation aid to convey the idea of variety

    within unity

    denotative

    meaning

    the dictionary definition or objective meaning of a word

    connotative

    meaning

    the emotional, subjective, personal meaning that certain words can evoke in

    listeners

    jargon technical language related to a specific field that may be incomprehensible to a

    general audience

    euphemism sometimes humorous use of words to soften or evade the truth of a situation

    doublespeak using words that point in the direction opposite from the reality they should be

    describing

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    amplification the art of developing ideas by finding ways to restate them in a speech

    slang the language of the street

    malapropisms language errors that occur when a word is confused with another word that

    sounds like it

    maxims brief and particularly apt sayings

    cultural sensitivity the respectful appreciation of diversity within an audience

    figurative

    language

    the use of words in certain surprising and unusual ways in order to magnify the

    power of their meaning

    metaphor brief, concentrated form of comparison that is implied and often surprising. It

    connects elements of experience that are not usually related in order to create a

    new perspective

    enduring

    metaphors

    metaphors of unusual power and popularity that are based on experience that

    lasts across time and that crosses many cultural boundaries

    simile a language tool that clarifies something abstract by comparing it with something

    concrete; usually introduced by "as" or "like"

    personification a figure of speech in which nonhuman or abstract subjects are given human

    qualities

    culturetypes terms that express the values and goals of a group's cultureideographs compact expressions of a group's basic political faith

    antithesis a language technique that combines opposing elements in the same sentence or

    adjoining sentences

    inversion changing the normal order of words to make statements memorable

    parallel

    construction

    wording points in the same way to emphasize their importance and to help the

    audience remember them

    alliteration the repetition of initial consonant sounds in closely connected words

    onomatopoeia the use of words that sound like the subjects they signify

    integrated

    communication

    an ideal, harmonious convergence of voice, body language, and speech content to

    produce a self-reinforcing interplay of meanings

    presentation the act of offering a speech to an audience, integrating the skills of nonverbalcommunication with the speech content

    expanded

    conversational

    style

    a presentational quality that, while more formal than everyday conversation,

    preserves its directness and spontaneity

    immediacy a quality of successful communication achieved when the speaker and audience

    experience a sense of closeness

    pitch the position of a human voice on the musical scale

    habitual pitch the vocal level at which people speak most frequently

    optimum pitch the level at which people can produce their strongest voice with minimal effort and

    that allows variation up and down the musical scale

    rate the speed at which words are uttered

    rhythm rate patterns of vocal presentation within a speech

    vocal distractions filler words such as "er," "um," and "you know," used in the place of a pause

    articulation the manner in which individual speech sounds are produced

    enunciation the manner in which individual words are articulated and pronounced in context

    pronunciation the use of correct sounds and of proper stress on syllables when saying words

    dialect a speech pattern associated with an area of the country or with a cultural or ethnic

    background

    body language communication achieved using facial expressions, eye contact, movements and

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    gestures

    proxemics the study of how human beings use space during communication

    distance principle of proxemics involving the control of the space

    elevation principle of proxemics dealing with power relationships implied when speakers

    stand above listeners

    impromptu

    speaking

    a talk delivered with minimal or no preparation

    PREP formula a technique for making an impromptu speech state a point, give a reason or

    example, and restate the point

    memorized text

    presentations

    speeches that are committed to memory and delivered word for word

    manuscript

    presentation

    a speech read from a manuscript

    extemporaneous

    presentation

    a form of presentation in which a speech, although carefully prepared and

    practiced, is not written out or memorized

    feedback speaker's perception of how audience members react to the message both during

    and after its presentation

    informative value a measure of how much new and important information or understanding aspeech conveys to an audience

    speech of

    description

    an informative speech that creates word-pictures to help the audience understand

    a subject

    speech of

    demonstration

    an informative speech aimed at showing the audience how to do something or

    how something works

    speech of

    explanation

    offers understanding of abstract and complex subjects

    intensity attention factor concerning how much an object contrasts with its background

    repetition repeating sounds, words or phrases to attract and hold attention

    novelty the quality of being new or unusual

    activity holding audience attention by offering a vigorous presentation, telling excitingstories, and using language that creates the sense of action

    contrast arranging supporting materials to highlight differences or gaining attention by

    using abrupt changes in presentation, dwelling upon opposites, or framing the pros

    and cons of a situation

    relevance holding attention by pointing out a subject's importance or value to vital interests

    retention the extent to which listeners remember and use the speaker's message

    spatial design a pattern for an informative speech that orders the main points as they occur in

    actual space

    sequential design a pattern for an informative speech that presents the steps involved in the process

    being demonstrated

    chronological

    design

    a pattern of speech organization that follows a sequence of important events in a

    historical pattern

    categorical design the use of natural or customary divisions within a subject as a way of structuring an

    informative speech

    comparative

    design

    a pattern for an informative speech that relates an unfamiliar subject to something

    the audience already knows or understands

    literal analogy a comparison made between subjects within the same field

    figurative analogy a comparison made between things that belong to different fields

    comparison and an informative speech design that points out similarities and differences between

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    contrast subjects or ideas

    causation design a pattern for an informative speech that shows how one condition generates, or is

    generated by, another

    briefing a short informative presentation offered in an organizational setting that focuses

    upon plans, policies, or reports

    persuasion the art of gaining fair and favorable consideration for our point of view

    manipulative

    persuasion

    persuasion that works through suggestion, colorful images, music and attractive

    spokespersons more than through evidence and reasoning. It avoids the ethical

    burden of justification.

    argumentative

    persuasion

    persuasion built on evidence and reasoning

    evidence supporting materials used in persuasive speeches, including facts and figures,

    examples, narratives, and testimony

    reluctant witness witnesses who testify against their apparent self-interest

    proof an interpretation of evidence that provides a good reason for listeners to agree

    with the speaker

    logos a form of proof that makes rational appeals based on facts and figures and expert

    testimonypathos proof relying on appeals to emotions

    ethos a form of proof that relies on the audience's perceptions of a speaker's

    competence, character, good will, and dynamism

    mythos a form of proof that connects a subject to the culture and tradition of a group of

    narratives

    initial credibility the audience's assessment of your ethos before you begin your speech

    emerging

    credibility

    the changes in the audience's assessment of ethos that occur as you present your

    speech

    terminal

    credibility

    the audience's assessment of your ethos after you have made a presentation

    reasoning fromprinciple

    argumentative reasoning that is based upon shared principles, values, and rules,sometimes called deductive reasoning

    deductive

    reasoning

    arguing from a general principle to a specific case

    major premise the statement of a general principle on which an argument is based

    minor premise the statement of a specific instance that relates to the general principle on which

    an argument is based

    conclusion the ending of the speech, which summarizes the message and leaves listeners with

    something to remember. Also, the final statement of the relationship between the

    major and minor premises of an argument

    enthymeme pattern of deductive reasoning as it occurs in persuasion about public issues

    reasoning from

    reality

    emphasis on factual evidence in guiding one's general conclusions and decisions

    inductive

    reasoning

    reasoning from specific factual instances to reach a general conclusion

    reasoning from

    parallel cases

    presenting a similar situation and how it was handled as the basis of the argument

    - often called analogical reasoning

    analogical

    reasoning

    creating a strategic perspective on a subject by relating it to something similar

    about which the audience has strong feelings

    data the factual evidence in an argument as featured in the Toulmin model

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    claim the conclusion the speaker draws based on the data in an argument. Also,

    conclusions that go beyond factual statements to make judgments about their

    subjects

    warrant the principle that justifies moving from data to claim in an argument

    fallacies errors in reasoning that make persuasion unreliable

    slippery slope

    fallacy

    the assumption that once something happens, an inevitable trend is established

    that will lead to disastrous results

    confusion of fact

    and opinion

    fallacy

    a misuse of evidence in which personal opinions are offered as though they were

    facts, or facts are dismissed as though they were opinion

    red herring fallacy the use of irrelevant material to divert attention

    myth of the mean the deceptive use of statistical averages in speeches

    flawed statistical

    comparisons

    statistical reasoning that offers fallacious conclusions by comparing unequal or

    unlike situations

    ad hominem

    fallacy

    an attempt to discredit a position by attacking the people who favor it

    begging the

    question fallacy

    assuming that an argument has been proved without actually presenting the

    evidenceshaky principle

    fallacy

    a reasoning error that occurs when an argument is based on a faulty premise

    omitted qualifier

    fallacy

    a reasoning error that occurs when a persuader claims too much, confusing

    probability with certainty

    post hoc fallacy a deductive error in which one event is assumed to be the cause of another simply

    because the first preceded the second

    hasty

    generalization

    fallacy

    an error of inductive reasoning in which a claim is made based on insufficient or

    nonrepresentative information.

    non sequiter

    fallacy

    a deductive error occurring when conclusions do not follow from the premises that

    precede themfaulty analogy a comparison drawn between things that are dissimilar in some important way

    either-or thinking

    fallacy

    a fallacy that occurs when a speaker suggests that there are only two options, and

    only one is desirable

    straw man fallacy understating, distorting or otherwise misrepresenting the position of opponents

    for the ease of refutation

    speeches that

    focus on facts

    speeches designed to establish the validity of past or present information or to

    make predictions about what is likely to occur in the future

    predictions forecasts of what we can expect in the future, often based on projections of trends

    from past occurrences

    speeches that

    address attitudes,

    beliefs, and values

    speeches designed to modify these elements and help listeners find harmony

    among them

    cognitive

    dissonance

    the discomfort we feel because of conflict among our attitudes, beliefs, and values

    speeches that

    advocate action

    speeches that encourage listeners to change their behavior either as individuals or

    as members of a group

    debate the clash of opposing ideas, evaluations, and policy proposals on a subject of

    concern

    awareness this first stage in the persuasive process includes knowing about a problem and

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    paying attention to it

    understanding this second phase in the persuasive process requires that listeners grasp the

    meaning of the speaker's message

    agreement the third stage in the persuasive process, which requires that listeners accept a

    speaker's recommendations and remember their reasons for doing so

    enactment the fourth stage of the persuasive process in which listeners take appropriate

    action as the result of agreement

    integration final stage of the persuasive process in which listeners connect new attitudes and

    commitments with previous beliefs and values to ensure lasting change

    co-active

    approach

    a way of approaching reluctant audiences in which the speaker attempts to

    establish goodwill, emphasizes shared values, and sets modest goals for persuasion

    boomerang effect a possible audience's reaction to a speech that advocates too much change

    great expectation

    fallacy

    the mistaken idea that major change can be accomplished by a single persuasive

    effort

    multisided

    presentation

    a speech in which the speaker's position is compared favorably to other positions

    inoculation effect preparing an audience for an opposing argument by answering it before listeners

    have been exposed to itsleeper effect a delayed reaction to persuasion

    problem-solution

    design

    a persuasive speech pattern in which listeners are first persuaded that they have a

    problem and then are shown how to solve it

    stock issues the major general questions a reasonable person would ask before agreeing to a

    change in policies or procedures

    motivated

    sequence design

    a persuasive speech design that proceeds by arousing attention, demonstrating a

    need, satisfying the need, visualizing results, and calling for action

    refutative design a persuasive speech design in which the speaker tries to raise doubts about,

    damage, or destroy an opposing position

    ceremonial

    speaking

    speaking that celebrates special occasions, such as speeches of tribute, inspiration,

    and introduction, eulogies, toasts, award presentations, acceptances, and after-dinner speeches. Their deeper function is to share identities and reinforce values

    that unite people into communities

    magnification a speaker's selecting and emphasizing certain qualities of a subject to stress the

    values they represent

    speech of tribute a ceremonial speech that recognizes the achievements of individuals or groups or

    commemorates special events

    award

    presentation

    a speech of tribute that recognizes achievements of the award recipient, explains

    the nature of the award, and describes why the recipient qualifies for the award

    eulogy a speech of tribute presented upon a person's death

    toast a short speech of tribute, usually offered at celebration dinners or meetings

    speech of

    acceptance

    a ceremonial speech expressing gratitude for an honor and acknowledging those

    who made the accomplishment possible

    speech of

    introduction

    a ceremonial speech in which a featured speaker is introduced to the audience

    speech of

    inspiration

    a ceremonial speech directed at awakening or reawakening an audience to a goal,

    purpose, or set of values

    after-dinner

    speech

    a brief, often humorous, ceremonial speech, presented after a meal, that offers a

    message without asking for radical changes

    master of a person who coordinates an event or program, sets its mood, introduces, and

  • 8/6/2019 quizlet DSST PS

    12/12

    ceremonies provides transitions

    embedded

    narrative

    stories inserted within speeches that illustrate the speaker's points

    vicarious

    experience

    narrative

    speech strategy in which the speaker invites listeners to imagine themselves

    enacting a story

    master narrative form of speaking in which the entire speech becomes a story that reveals some

    important truth

    narrative design speech structure that develops a story from beginning to end through a sequence

    of scenes in which characters interact

    prologue an opening that establishes the context and setting of a narrative, foreshadows the

    meaning, and introduces major characters

    plot the body of a speech that follows narrative design; unfolds in a sequence of scenes

    designed to build suspense

    epilogue the final part of a narrative that reflects upon its meaning