Production and characterization of natural fiber-polymer · PDF file In recent decades, the...

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  • Production and characterization of natural fiber-

    polymer composites using ground tire rubber as

    impact modifier

    Mémoire

    Navid Nikpour

    Maîtrise en génie chimique

    Maître ès sciences (M. Sc.)

    Québec, Canada

    © Navid Nikpour, 2016

  • III

    Résumé

    Ce travail porte sur la production et la caractérisation de matériaux composites hybrides basés

    sur un polymère thermoplastique (polyéthylène de haute densité, PEHD), une fibre naturelle

    (chanvre) et un caoutchouc recyclé provenant de pneus usés (GTR) comme modificateur

    d'impact. L'addition d'un agent de couplage (polyéthylène maléaté) est également étudiée.

    Les échantillons sont mélangés par extrusion à double-vis et fabriqués par un moulage en

    injection. À partir des échantillons obtenus, une caractérisation morphologique et mécanique

    complète est effectuée. Les résultats montrent que la bonne dispersion est obtenue en raison

    des bonnes conditions de mélanges sélectionnées et une bonne adhésion interfaciale entre

    toutes les phases est atteinte en raison de la présence d'anhydride maléique greffée au

    polyéthylène (MAPE). Enfin, pour des propriétés mécaniques choisies, des modèles de

    régression non-linéaire sont proposés pour prédire et contrôler les propriétés finales de ces

    composés par des comparaisons faites sur la base des propriétés de la matrice seule.

  • V

    Abstract

    This work aims at the production and characterization of hybrid composites based on a

    thermoplastic polymer (high density polyethylene, HDPE), a natural fiber (hemp) as

    reinforcement and ground tire rubber (GTR) as an impact modifier. The addition of a

    coupling agent (maleated polyethylene) is also investigated. The samples are compounded

    by twin-screw extrusion and produced by injection molding. From the samples obtained, a

    complete morphological and mechanical characterization is performed. The results show that

    good dispersion is obtained due to the selected processing conditions and good interfacial

    adhesion between all the phases is achieved due to the presence of maleic anhydride grafted

    polyethylene (MAPE). Finally, for selected mechanical properties, nonlinear regression

    models are proposed to predict and control the final properties of these compounds and

    comparisons are made based on the neat matrix properties.

  • VII

    Table of content

    Résumé ................................................................................................................................. III

    Abstract .................................................................................................................................. V

    Table of content .................................................................................................................. VII

    List of tables ......................................................................................................................... IX

    List of figures ....................................................................................................................... XI

    Abbreviations .................................................................................................................... XIII

    Symbols .............................................................................................................................. XV

    Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................... XVII

    Foreword ............................................................................................................................ XIX

    Chapter 1: ............................................................................................................................... 1

    1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Waste Tires .................................................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Ground tire rubber (GTR).............................................................................................. 5

    1.3 GTR applications ........................................................................................................... 6

    1.4 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE)................................................................................... 6

    1.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of TPE ...................................................................... 9

    1.5 GTR use in thermoplastic elastomers ............................................................................ 9

    1.5.1 GTR particle size ...................................................................................................... 10

    1.5.2 Adhesion of GTR ..................................................................................................... 11

    1.6 Hybrid composites based on rubber and natural fiber ................................................. 12

    1.6.1 Natural fibers ............................................................................................................ 12

    1.6.2 Mechanical properties of natural fibers .................................................................... 13

    1.6.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of natural fibers ...................................................... 13

    1.6.4 Surface treatment methods ....................................................................................... 16

    1.6.4.1 Physical methods ................................................................................................... 17

    1.6.4.2 Chemical methods ................................................................................................. 17

    1.6.4.3 Compatibilizing agents .......................................................................................... 20

    1.7 Thesis objectives ......................................................................................................... 23

    Chapter 2: ............................................................................................................................. 25

  • VIII

    2. Effect of coupling agent and ground tire rubber content on the properties of natural fiber

    polymer composite ............................................................................................................... 25

    2.1 Résumé ........................................................................................................................ 26

    2.2 Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 27

    2.3 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 28

    2.4 Materials ...................................................................................................................... 29

    2.5 Compounding .............................................................................................................. 29

    2.6 Characterization ........................................................................................................... 32

    2.7 Empirical models ......................................................................................................... 32

    2.8 Results and discussion ................................................................................................. 33

    2.8.1 Morphology .............................................................................................................. 33

    2.9 Mechanical properties.................................................................................................. 35

    2.10 Properties modeling ..................................................................................................... 39

    2.11 Goodness of fit and prediction of the model ............................................................... 41

    2.12 Refinement and Analysis of the Model ....................................................................... 42

    2.13 Model application ........................................................................................................ 44

    2.14 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 46

    Chapter 3: ............................................................................................................................. 49

    3. General conclusion and recommendations .................................................................... 49

    3.1 General conclusion ...................................................................................................... 49

    3.2 Recommendation for future work................................................................................ 50

    References ............................................................................................................................ 53

    Appendix A: ............................................................................................