MATÉRIAUX AÉRONAUTIQUES ... field in which some interesting and important developments...

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  • La Société Savante de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace

    MATÉRIAUX AÉRONAUTIQUES d’aujourd’hui et de demain

    AERONAUTICAL MATERIALS

    for today and tomorrow

    AAE Dossier #39 2014 3AF Cahier #10

  • © AAE - 3AF - 2014

    All rights reserved

    Cover credits: EADS, Onera

    AAE

    Ancien Observatoire de Jolimont

    1 ave Camille Flammarion

    BP75825 - 31505 Toulouse Cedex 05 - France

    Tel : +33 (0)5 34 25 03 80 - Fax : +33 (0)5 61 26 37 56

    contact@academie-air-espace.com

    www.academie-air-espace.com

    3AF

    6 rue Galilée - 75116 Paris - France

    Tel: +33 (0)1 56 64 12 30 Fax: +33 (0)1 56 64 12 31

    secr.exec@aaaf.asso.fr

    www.3af.fr

    ISBN 978-2-913331-56-3

    ISBN 979-10-92518-09-2

    ISSN 1147-3657

    Dépôt légal juin 2014

  • Aeronautical materials for

    today and tomorrow

    Following the forum organised by the Air and Space Academy

    (AAE), French Aerospace Society (3AF) and Academy of

    Technologies, at SAGEM, Paris, 30 November 2012

    AAE Dossier #39 2014 3AF Cahier #10

  • Table of ConTenTs

    Introduction .............................................................................................. 6

    executive summary ............................................................................... 8

    Current and future needs for materials for aeronautical

    equipment and turbomachinery .....................................................10

    Materials for aeronautical and space structures

    Trends and challenges for tomorrow ............................................18 Metallic materials ................................................................................................... 19

    Composite materials .............................................................................................. 21

    architectured materials: a bridge between materials

    and design ..............................................................................................25 The case for architectured materials ......................................................................... 26

    Microstructure gradients ......................................................................................... 26

    Tailoring materials with geometry ............................................................................ 27

    Designing multifunctional materials .......................................................................... 27

    Choice between aluminium alloys and organic composites

    for future business aircraft ...............................................................29

    new alloys and aluminium solutions for aeronautical

    structures: progress and challenges ............................................32

    Highly resistant (> 2000 MPa) and very tough stainless

    steels (75-150 MPa√m): Dream and/or industrial reality? ......38

    Air and Space Academy (AAE) ................................................................................ 42

    French Aerospace Society (3AF) ............................................................................. 43

    National Academy of Technologies of France ............................................................ 44

  • fIgures

    Figure 1: Current Turbojets ....................................................................................................... 10 Figure 2: Weight reduction .........................................................................................................11 Figure 3: Disk forging modelling ............................................................................................... 12 Figure 4: Direct manufacturing .................................................................................................. 13 Figure 5: Different solutions to environmental constraints ........................................................ 14 Figure 6: Different solutions to environmental constraints ........................................................ 15 Figure 7: Performance gains ..................................................................................................... 16 Figure 8: New processes .......................................................................................................... 16 Figure 9: Evolving constraints ................................................................................................... 18 Figure 10: New grades of aluminium alloys ................................................................................ 19 Figure 11: Assembly technology - FSW ..................................................................................... 20 Figure 12: Direct manufacture .................................................................................................... 21 Figure 13: Composites (Thermosets) ......................................................................................... 22 Figure 14: Multifunctional composites ......................................................................................... 23 Figure 15: Lightning resistance ................................................................................................... 24 Figure 16: Architectured materials .............................................................................................. 26 Figure 17a: Plate created through assembly of osteomorphic blocks .......................................... 27 Figure 17b: Monolithic plate .......................................................................................................... 27 Figure 18: State of the art in architectured materials.................................................................. 28 Figure 19: Demonstrator of a Falcon rear section (ALCAS project) ......................................... 30 Figure 20: Demonstrator of Falcon front section (FUBACOMP project) ..................................... 31 Figure 21: AI-based advanced metallic materials for aerostructure manufacture ...................... 32 Figure 22: New alloys: AI, Cu, Ag ............................................................................................... 33 Figure 23a: Machining of fuselage frameworks in alloy 2050 (AIRWARE®) ............................... 34 Figure 23b: Comparison of sheet properties of 76mm in 2050 T84 (AIRWARE®) and

    7050 T74 (reference) ................................................................................................. 34 Figure 24: Airware® 2050 on Airbus A350XWB ......................................................................... 35 Figure 25: Airware® 2198 on Bombardier CSeries fuselage ...................................................... 35 Figure 26: Evolution in damage tolerance .................................................................................. 36 Figure 27: Role of landing gears ................................................................................................. 39 Figure 28: Fracture toughness K1c (20°C) of different very high/ultra high strength steels ...... 39 Figure 29: Calculated curves of crack resistance for different hardening coefficients .............. 40 Figure 30: Dual-Phase ................................................................................................................ 40 Figure 31: Partitioning of Mn ....................................................................................................... 41

  • 6

    IntroDuctIon

    Two reasons prompted us to organise this forum:

    1. A global vision for “Metallurgy - Science and Engineering” as a whole, following a report prepared in 2011 under the responsibility of Yves Quéré of the Academy of Sciences and André Pineau of the Academy of Technologies. The purpose of this report was to alert the authorities and the public as to the poor state of this discipline in France; it concluded that this worrying situation could become catastrophic if no remedy was found very quickly.

    2. The second motivation is more specifically related to aerospace materials, a field in which some interesting and important developments have taken place in France in the areas of metallic alloys and composite materials. So what is the situation today and what can we expect tomorrow?

    The Air and Space Academy (AAE) and French aerospace society 3AF have been closely involved in reflexions around the theme of materials through their various commissions and working groups. AAE has prepared written documents and organised conferences on this subject, in particular an international conference on “Flying in 2050” in May 2012.

    The aim of the forum was thus to present the state of the art, the progress made and both current and future needs in terms of aeronautical materials.

    In order to meet the challenges facing air transport by 2050, it is essential to move forward in certain key areas:

    • propulsion systems • weight • cost management • drag • air traffic management.

    In the case of the first three factors, materials are at the very heart of strategic and economic decisions in terms of design and manufacture of turbomachinery and aeronautical and space structures.

    Contents

  • 7

    The purpose of this forum of 30 November 2012, entitled Aeronautical materials for today and tomorrow, was to present and discuss issues, strategies and both current and future needs in terms of aeronautical materials.

    Regarding turbomachinery, a wide range of m