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Lec Wk 3Abstrak

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Side Arrows BackgroundMaterials & Methods (500 – 1000 words)
Results (1000 – 1500 words)
(total : 4000 – 7000 words)
A good title tells what the paper is about
Informative: describes the subject and perhaps the organism used or research environment
Specific: differentiates your research from other published papers on the subject
Concise: gives only important details
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THESIS TITLE:
YOUNG MALAYSIAN CHILDREN’s SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (SLA) EXPERIENCES IN THE UK
ARTICLE TITLE:
JURNAL : GEMA ONLINE
Judge your writing style
Importance of your results
Validity of your conclusions
Relevance of
your aims
First impression of the relevance of your aims, importance of your results, validity of your conclusion, and writing style
Need to summarize these points. Emphasize how your conclusion it relevant in the context of the background
*
Your hypothesis (10%)
Immunotherapy using slow-cycling tumor cells prolonged overall survival of tumor-bearing mice
Background
Despite considerable progress in the development of anticancer therapies, there is still a high mortality rate caused by cancer relapse and metastasis. Dormant or slow-cycling residual tumor cells are thought to be a source of tumor relapse and metastasis, and are therefore an obstacle to therapy. In this study, we assessed the drug resistance of tumor cells in mice, and investigated whether vaccination could promote survival.
Methods
The mouse colon carcinoma cell line CT-26 was treated with 5-fluorouracil to assess its sensitivity to drug treatment. Mice with colon tumors were immunized with inactivated slow-cycling CT-26 cells to estimate the efficacy of this vaccine.
Results
We identified a small population of slow-cycling tumor cells in the mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 cell line, which was resistant to conventional chemotherapy. To inhibit tumor recurrence and metastasis more effectively, treatments that selectively target the slow-cycling tumor cells should be developed to complement conventional therapies. We found that drug-treated, slow-cycling tumor cells induced a more intense immune response in vitro. Moreover, vaccination with inactivated slow-cycling tumor cells caused a reduction in tumor volume and prolonged the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice.
Conclusions
*
Differential DNA Methylation Status Between Human
Preadipocytes and Mature Adipocytes
Obesity is a multifactorial disease resulting from interactions between susceptibility genes, psychosocial, and environmental factors. However, it is becoming evident that interindividual differences in obesity susceptibility depend also on epigenetic factors, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of human preadipocytes and mature adipocytes to examine the differences in methylation between them. We found hypomethylation occurring in 2,701 genes and hypermethylation in 1,070 genes after differentiation. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed many significant gene functions and pathways with altered methylation status after adipocyte differentiation. In addition, Signal-Net analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor-α, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and interleukin-8 were important to the formation of this network. Our results suggest that DNA methylation mechanisms may be involved in regulating the differentiation process of human preadipocytes.
Obesity is a multifactorial disease resulting from interactions between susceptibility genes, psychosocial, and environmental factors. However, it is becoming evident that interindividual differences in obesity susceptibility depend also on epigenetic factors, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.
Background
We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of human preadipocytes and mature adipocytes to examine the differences in methylation between them.
Methods
We found hypomethylation occurring in 2,701 genes and hypermethylation in 1,070 genes after differentiation. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed many significant gene functions and pathways with altered methylation status after adipocyte differentiation. In addition, Signal-Net analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor-α, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and interleukin-8 were important to the formation of this network.
Results
Our results suggest that DNA methylation mechanisms may be involved in regulating the differentiation process of human preadipocytes.
Conclusion
Zhu et al. (2012) Cell Biochem Biophys 63:115.
Our results suggest that DNA methylation mechanisms may be involved in regulating the differentiation process of human preadipocytes.
We found hypomethylation occurring in 2,701 genes and hypermethylation in 1,070 genes after differentiation. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed many significant gene functions and pathways with altered methylation status after adipocyte differentiation. In addition, Signal-Net analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor-α, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and interleukin-8 were important to the formation of this network.
We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of human preadipocytes and mature adipocytes to examine the differences in methylation between them.
Obesity is a multifactorial disease resulting from interactions between susceptibility genes, psychosocial, and environmental factors. However, it is becoming evident that interindividual differences in obesity susceptibility depend also on epigenetic factors, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.
*
Do not include a lot of numbers and statistics
The effect of high vacuum on the mechanical properties and bioactivity of collagen fibril matrices
Anderton et al. (2013) Biointerfaces 8:2.
Results
The cell area histogram and mean cell areas for the HV-treated fibril matrices (2030 μm2 ± 137 μm2) are comparable to the cell areas of untreated fibril matrices measured here (2165 μm2 ± 206 μm2) and elsewhere... Cells on LV-treated fibril matrices have larger average surface areas (3450 μm2 ± 175 μm2) than the control untreated matrices, and their spread areas are more similar to that of cells plated on dehydrated fibrils (average cell area of 4348 μm2 ± 287 μm2).
The modulus results for the first analysis reveal that HV treatment of the fibrils leads to a small, but statically significant (p < 0.0001), increase in mechanical rigidity of the fibril matrices. Untreated matrices had a modulus of 8.1 kPa ± 2.2 kPa and HV-treated matrices had a modulus of 13.1 kPa ± 3.8 kPa. However, the HV-treated matrices are approximately a factor of three more compliant than the dehydrated fibril matrices (35.4 kPa ± 4.9 kPa). The modulus results for the second analysis (Table 2) indicate that LV-treated fibril matrices (34.7 kPa ± 3.7 kPa) are nearly as mechanically stiff (p= 0.20) as the dehydrated matrices (36.4 kPa ± 4.2 kPa), and are considerably less compliant than the untreated matrices (11.2 kPa ± 3.7 kPa) in this experiment.
Summarize and simplify your results
We find that HV exposure has an unappreciable affect on the cell spreading response and mechanical properties of these collagen fibril matrices. Conversely, low vacuum environments cause fibrils to become mechanically rigid as indicated by force microscopy, resulting in greater cell spreading.
We find that HV exposure has an unappreciable affect on the cell spreading response and mechanical properties of these collagen fibril matrices. Conversely, low vacuum environments cause fibrils to become mechanically rigid as indicated by force microscopy, resulting in greater cell spreading.
Abstract
Abstract
1) Start with motivation or justification if space allows (makes the reader think the paper might be interesting)
2) State the objective
4) Summarize results, but statistics not normally presented.
5) End with important conclusions and implications.
#2-5 Makes the reader want to read the paper because it is interesting.
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Degree Program: Business Administration
Title: Satisfaction Levels within Ufasach Oy
Author: Sami Suomalinen
Number of pages: 76+ 10
The purpose of this study was to identify satisfaction levels within Ufasach Oy. Ufasach
Oy is a small company of fifty employees which sells footwear in Finland. Management
at Ufasach believed that satisfaction levels were dropping and wanted to discover why.
The study was commissioned by Ufasach Oy.
Both qualitative and quantitative research methodology was utilised in this study. The
qualitative research data consisted of five in-depth interviews with employees of Ufasach
Oy. The quantitative research data was gathered with the aid of a questionnaire. Fifty
questionnaires were sent to employees in Ufasach Oy and forty five responses were
received. The response rate was ninety percent.
The results of the questionnaire revealed a high level of dissatisfaction within Ufasach
Oy. Over forty percent of respondents indicated dissatisfaction with work environment
and atmosphere within the company. When asked to indicate satisfaction with
management of the company, over two thirds of employees indicated that they were
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied while one third of employees indicated that they were
unsatisfied. All respondents indicated high satisfaction in regards to level of
remuneration. The in-depth interviews revealed that employees were unhappy with the
management style of superiors within the company. All five interviewed respondents
stated that the management style was oppressive. Interviewed respondents felt they were
allowed very little initiative taking and were not listened to by their superiors. The
interview also reveled that staff were unhappy with the recently introduced procedures
for manufacturing shoes.
The author recommends that management within Ufasach reevaluate their practices and
begin listening to their employees. It is recommended that Ufascah develop monthly
meetings with employees and provide a forum where staff could initiate suggestion to
assist the smooth running of the company. It is recommended that recently introduced
manufacturing procedures be reassessed and include employees opinions on the matter.
It is also recommended that further research be carried out into satisfaction levels on a six
month basis to begin with.
Keywords: satisfaction levels, dissatisfaction, work environment, atmosphere, procedures
The purpose is indicated.
Explanation about the company and reason for research indicated.
All readers now know & understand why the research was
needed. The reader also does not have to ask what the company
does.
Paragraph 1
Qualitative research = Information too difficult or expensive to qualify; value judgements typically
involving group discussions or personal interviews. Often used when the research is looking to
uncover more detailed information from research e.g. interviewing respondents to gain a deeper
insight rather than just have them tick a box.
Quantitative Research = Research findings which can analysed and expressed numerically, often
large sample surveys from mailed questionnaires etc. or analysis of sales data and market forecast.
Often used when the research questions are simple and do need a detailed explanation. Used when
large number of respondents needed to provide statistical analysis.
Paragraph 3
P3: Details
some key
you
recommend?
Notice no use of “I”. “The author” Respondents: People who answered the research
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ABSTRACT - THESIS
This study aims to explore the experiences of young Malaysian children acquiring a second language while studying in a mainstream school and living in a target language country. It further aims at exploring the cognitive and sociocultural factors and their relationships that may contribute to the children’s second language acquisition (SLA) process and their interrelationship as experienced by the children. It is hoped that by exploring what children say about these experiences, we would further enhance our understanding of SLA.
The participants consisted of three six year old children who came to the UK between the age of two and three, their mothers and class teacher. Adopting an interpretive research inquiry, this study employed an ethnographic case study methodology. There were two modes of inquiry used in this study: interviews and observations. The data was collected at three phases over a period of six months. As a means of triangulation, their parents and class teacher were also interviewed at the three phases. The observations included classroom and home observations. All the data was transcribed and analysed qualitatively. The NVivo software package was used for organisation and retrieval purposes of the interview data. The Grounded Theory methodology was employed to analyse the emerging themes from the data gathered.
The findings from these children’s perspectives indicate that SLA is less about learning a new language but more about ‘getting on’ with their lives at school and home. The children talked about the activities they did at school and home in describing their SLA. It is not about language acquisition per se. The findings indicate that the children’s SLA experiences evolve from their interactions with their peers at school and their use of L2 in their activities at school and home. The findings from the teacher’s perspective indicate the role and relationship of sociocultural factors in these children’s SLA process. Meanwhile, the parents appeared to believe that SLA is about learning a second language per se. However, the findings of their interviews also indicate that their children’s SLA experiences were socioculturally influenced. This study has also further illuminated that SLA is a naturalistic and situated process; that young children would acquire a language naturally through their interactions in their socialization process.
This study illuminates the sociocultural perspective in SLA for these young Malaysian children. It provides yet another world view of SLA that; from these children’s perspectives, SLA is about ‘getting on’ with life or ‘doing things’ that children do. It raises questions about what should be the purpose of acquiring a second language for young children. This will have implications on the teaching and learning of L2 children such as the aim of L2 teaching, the teaching approach to be employed, and the language support that needs to be given.
(459 words)
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Abstract – Article
This paper discusses how three young Malaysian children aged six developed an identity while experiencing second language acquisition (SLA). It illustrates how language difference which is an aspect of diversity has lead learners to develop an identity as language learners. The discussion is based on the findings of an ethnographic case study on three young Malaysian children’s SLA experiences in the United Kingdom (U.K). The aim of this study is to gather insights from these children about their SLA experiences while attending a mainstream school and living in the U.K. This is to enhance our understanding about the process. The children were interviewed as individuals and as a group; and were observed at school and home. Transcripts of the interviews and observations were examined closely to identify themes for analysis and discussion. The findings indicate that the children experienced SLA as a socialization process in which the target language was being used to get on with life in a mainstream classroom and at home. The findings indicated several factors that might have an impact on the children’s SLA. One that had a significant impact was that the children, without
their awareness, were developing an identity in dealing with diversity.
(199 words)
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In the previous section, I have described how I believe my knowledge of English has developed out of my experiences of SLA and my interpretation of them. To do this, I have observed and analysed my SLA experiences. I believe that my early start was beneficial to me. I described how my home and school environment, together with my positive attitude and motivation impacted in favourable ways on my developing competence. In this thesis I am interested to establish how far different experiences for different Malay children in different settings will contribute to their language learning and how this can deepen an understanding of SLA both among Malay children and more broadly. To do this, I need to explore children’s experiences by talking to them about their SLA experiences, observing their behaviours or actions in relation to SLA, and being part of their context where the process takes place. This is because “spend[ing] time watching children and thinking about how they behave and respond to the world around them, … working with and talking to children, … reading what others have written about them…and from analysing our own personal experiences…is one of the ways to develop our theories.” (Conteh, 2003: 2). Thus, this study aims to explore young children’s SLA experiences to help us understand SLA from their perspectives.
Objektif? - RQ
1. What do young Malaysian children say about their SLA experience in mainstream schools in the UK?
2. What do young Malaysian children say about their SLA experience at home while living in the UK?
3. How do young Malaysian children experience SLA in mainstream school and while living in the UK?
Metodologi?
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Better – “Teaching students about biodiversity by studying the correlation between plant and arthropod biodiversity”
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Better – “Habitat use and activity of prairie kingsnakes (Lampropeltis calligaster calligaster) in Illinois.”
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Concise
Poor – “The effects of a juvenile hormone analog, pyriproxyfen, on molting, development, survivorship, longevity, and reproduction of the apterous form of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines). “
Better – “Effects of a juvenile hormone analog, pyriproxyfen, on the apterous form of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines).”
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Abstract
The abstract should be a stand-alone summary of the entire paper.
Although it appears first, write the abstract last.
Be specific and concise.
*
project.
objective of the project (this usually comes
first).
THINGS TO REMEMBER
Word limit: An abstract (including a bibliography or examples, if needed) must be no more than 500 words.
Please note the word count at the bottom of the abstract. Except for the instructions given below, no special form or format is needed for this initial submission of the abstract.
NOTE: Many abstracts are rejected because they omit crucial information rather than because of errors in what they include.
2. Title: At the top of the abstract, put the title.
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A suggested outline for abstracts (500 words max) is as follows:
1. Choose a title that clearly indicates the topic of the paper and is no more than one line long.
2. State the problem or research question raised by prior work, with specific reference to relevant prior research.
3. State the main point or argument of the proposed presentation.
4. Cite sufficient data, and explain why and how they support the main point or argument. Explain abbreviations at their first occurrence.
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5. If your paper presents the results of experiments, but collection of results is not yet complete, then report what results you have already obtained in sufficient detail so that your abstract may be evaluated. Also indicate the nature of the experimental design and the specific hypothesis tested.
6. State the relevance of your ideas to past work or to the future development of the field. Describe analyses in as much detail as possible. Avoid saying in effect "a solution to this problem will be presented". If you are taking a stand on a controversial issue, summarize the arguments that lead you to your position.
7. State the contribution to research made by the analysis.
8. While citation in the text of the relevant literature is essential, a separate list of references at the end of the abstract is not always unnecessary.
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Humanities Abstracts
Sophia Estante and Lorrie Moore (Mentor), English
This research looks at the work of Margaret C. Anderson, the editor of the Little Review. The review published first works by Sherwood Anderson, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, and Ezra Pound. This research draws upon mostly primary sources including memoirs, published letters, and a complete collection of the Little Review. Most prior research on Anderson focuses on her connection to the famous writers and personalities that she published and associated with. This focus undermines her role as the dominant creative force behind one of the most influential little magazines published in the 20th Century. This case example shows how little magazine publishing is arguably a literary art.
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Amanda Babin and Morton Gernbascher (Mentor), Psychology
The purpose of this research is to identify a subtype of autism called Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD). DVD is a motor-speech problem, disabling oral-motor movements needed for speaking. The first phase of the project involves a screening interview where we identify DVD and Non-DVD kids. We also use home videos to validate answers on the screening interview. The final phase involves home visits where we use several assessments to confirm the child’s diagnosis and examine the connection between manual and oral motor challenges. By identifying DVD as a subtype of Autism, we will eliminate the assumption that all Autistics have the same characteristics. This will allow for more individual consideration
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“Understanding Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Against Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)"
Sean Spenser and John Loffredo, David Watkins (Mentors), Primate Research Center
Each day 14,000 people become infected with HIV/AIDS, making the development of an effective vaccine one of the world’s top public health priorities. David Watkins’ laboratory is attempting to develop HIV vaccines that elicit cellular immune responses utilizing the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) – infected rhesus macaque animal model. A major component of the cell-mediated immune response are cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). It is thought that CTL play an important role in controlling HIV and SIV. Most standard immunological assays do not measure antiviral activity directly, limiting our understanding of CTL effectiveness. To address this, the Watkins laboratory developed a novel neutralization assay that quantifies the ability of virus-specific CTL populations to control viral growth. Evaluating the antiviral activity of CTL of different specificities will identify those CTL most effective against SIV. This information will likely impact the design of future HIV vaccines.
Hard Science Abstracts
Lauren Breshahan and Marlys Macken (Mentor), Linguistics
Upon receiving the Wisconsin Idea Undergraduate Fellowship the summer and fall 2003 semesters were spent designing and implementing a Hmong Political Council, Inc. (HPC). The fellowship addressed the immediate need felt by our local government and the Hmong refugee community to develop a political voice expressing the economic, political, and social needs of the Hmong refugee community. It was implemented through the collaboration of the United Refugee Services of Wisconsin, Professor Macken, the Hmong community, and myself. Extensive research was conducted at the local, state, and national level involving the studying of IRS requirements, lobbying rights, other political councils, and the needs of the Wisconsin Hmong community. HPC is now a legal non-profit organization that has held two fundraisers, released press statements, and worked with State and National political figures to address the needs of the Hmong community. Within the year HPC plans to be lobbying at the state level.
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“Blind Construction: Mixed Media”
Diana Dewi, Jennifer Kittleson, and Wendy Hagedorn (Mentor), Apparel and Textile Design
The basis of this project was to create a garment using mixed media in order to mimic the human body. The materials we used to create this piece include: buckram, copper wire, spray paint, fabric paint, a variety of novelty fabrics, and chains. The techniques we created in order to manipulate the piece include: fabric branding and burning, grid painting, sewing, draping, molding buckram, and coiling. Our overall approach was to create a theatrical wearable art piece. Upon completion of the assignment we found the piece aesthetically pleasing because of the way it molds to the
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Punctuation errors
E.g., 12 children took part in the study.
Use of words that do not exist
Undefined abbreviations
Contradictory information
Poor structure
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Key words
Often come at the end of an abstract.
Used for indexing purposes (search terms that will help someone find your article) and thus, often should not overlap with the title (the title is normally automatically included in databases).