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  • N dordre : 2012ISAL0140 Anne 2012

    Thse

    Investigation on the Control of

    Supercritical Centrifugal Compressors

    supported by Active Magnetic Bearings:

    Toward a new Control Strategy?

    Prsente devant

    Linstitut national des sciences appliques de Lyon

    Pour obtenir

    Le grade de docteur

    Formation doctorale : Mcanique

    cole doctorale Mcanique, Energtique, Gnie civil, Acoustique

    Par

    Benjamin D. DEFOY (Ingnieur INSA de Lyon)

    Soutenue le 14 dcembre 2012 devant la Commission dexamen

    Jury MM.

    Codirecteur T. ALBAN Responsable conception mcanique (GE Oil & Gas)

    Rapporteur P. KEOGH Professeur (Universit de Bath - UK)

    Directeur J. MAHFOUD Matre de confrences HDR (INSA de Lyon)

    Rapporteur E. MASLEN Professeur (Universit James Madison USA)

    Prsident F. THOUVEREZ Professeur (Ecole Centrale de Lyon)

    Laboratoire de recherche : Laboratoire de Mcanique des Contacts et des Structures

    (LaMCoS, INSA de Lyon, CNRS UMR5259)

    Cette thse est accessible l'adresse : http://theses.insa-lyon.fr/publication/2012ISAL0140/these.pdf [B. Defoy], [2012], INSA de Lyon, tous droits rservs

  • Cette thse est accessible l'adresse : http://theses.insa-lyon.fr/publication/2012ISAL0140/these.pdf [B. Defoy], [2012], INSA de Lyon, tous droits rservs

  • INSA Direction de la Recherche - Ecoles Doctorales Quinquennal 2011-2015

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    Cette thse est accessible l'adresse : http://theses.insa-lyon.fr/publication/2012ISAL0140/these.pdf [B. Defoy], [2012], INSA de Lyon, tous droits rservs

    http://www.edchimie-lyon.fr/mailto:directeur@edchimie-lyon.frhttp://edeea.ec-lyon.fr/mailto:eea@ec-lyon.frmailto:Gerard.scorletti@ec-lyon.frhttp://e2m2.universite-lyon.fr/mailto:e2m2@biomserv.univ-lyon1.frhttp://ww2.ibcp.fr/edissmailto:Didier.revel@creatis.uni-lyon1.frhttp://infomaths.univ-lyon1.fr/mailto:infomaths@univ-lyon1.frmailto:Ed.materiaux@insa-lyon.frmailto:Jean-yves.buffiere@insa-lyon.frmailto:mega@insa-lyon.frmailto:Philippe.boisse@insa-lyon.frmailto:Lionel.Obadia@univ-lyon2.fr

  • Cette thse est accessible l'adresse : http://theses.insa-lyon.fr/publication/2012ISAL0140/these.pdf [B. Defoy], [2012], INSA de Lyon, tous droits rservs

  • I Benjamin Defoy Thse en mcanique 2012 Institut national des sciences appliques de Lyon

    Abstract

    Investigation on the Control of Supercritical Centrifugal Compressors supported by

    Active Magnetic Bearings:

    Toward a new Control Strategy?

    The dynamic behaviour of large turbomachinery should satisfy stringent requirements dictated

    by international standards and final users. Their flexible rotor is sensitive to the unbalance

    distribution and subjected to particular excitations coming from the industrial process. Usually,

    the performance margins between the requirements and the classical controller capabilities are

    small. Consequently, the magnetic bearing characteristics depend on the rotor geometry.

    Designing such controllers is difficult and time consuming. The objective of this thesis is to

    investigate the dynamic behaviour of supercritical centrifugal compressors in order to propose a

    new control strategy.

    First, each bearing is considered as one entity by coupling its two axes of action. The introduction

    of polar quantities permits a better observation of the rotor dynamic behaviour. In addition, by

    using logic close to human being reasoning, the fuzzy logic modulates the action forces as a

    function of the global dynamic behaviour. The coupling of the two approaches is an efficient way

    to apply targeted corrective actions. This controller attenuates the unbalance vibration when

    crossing critical speeds by applying damping forces, or increases the stiffness during transient or

    asynchronous excitations in order to limit the maximum displacement reached.

    As their structural damping is low, flexible rotors are very sensitive to spillover effect, which

    cannot be managed by fuzzy controllers. Consequently, an underlying PID is necessary. This hand-

    synthesized controller has high frequency characteristics tuned in order to ensure stability and

    robustness for each rotor. Compared to a classical approach, the polar fuzzy controller enables to

    increase the performance margins. These margins are used to fulfil three objectives: the achievement

    of standards requirements, the improvement of the subsynchronous behaviour, and the simplification

    and the standardization of the PID controller that we called SPID. This SPID is designed for a given

    application, such that the bearing characteristics on the operating frequency range are always the

    same.

    The control strategy is assessed numerically and experimentally. First, the numerical model is

    validated with experimental tests. Then, the controller developed is applied to an academic test

    rig. The controller is stable and robust. It exhibits performance superior to the augmented PID

    supplied with the test rig for both unbalance response and response to subsynchronous

    excitations. Finally, the control of an industrial compressor is assessed numerically. The results

    obtained are close to the standards requirements used for classical bearings. The optimization of

    the approach and the utilization of an automatic tuning algorithm for high frequency

    characteristics could lead to the standardization of Active Magnetic Bearings.

    Keywords: Active Magnetic Bearings, Centrifugal Compressors, Fuzzy logic, Flexible rotor,

    Rotordynamics, Control, MIMO.

    Cette thse est accessible l'adresse : http://theses.insa-lyon.fr/publication/2012ISAL0140/these.pdf [B. Defoy], [2012], INSA de Lyon, tous droits rservs

  • II Benjamin Defoy Thse en mcanique 2012 Institut national des sciences appliques de Lyon

    Cette thse est accessible l'adresse : http://theses.insa-lyon.fr/publication/2012ISAL0140/these.pdf [B. Defoy], [2012], INSA de Lyon, tous droits rservs

  • III Benjamin Defoy Thse en mcanique 2012 Institut national des sciences appliques de Lyon

    Rsum (en franais)

    Recherches sur le Contrle des Compresseurs Centrifuges Supercritiques supports

    par des Paliers Magntiques Actifs :

    Vers une nouvelle stratgie de contrle ?

    Le comportement dynamique des turbomachines industrielles doit respecter des critres mis par

    les normes internationales et les utilisateurs. Les rotors flexibles sont sensibles la distribution de

    balourd, et sont soumis aux excitations arodynamiques de leur environnement. Usuellement, les

    contrleurs utiliss peinent dlivrer le niveau dexigence demand, par consquent les