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  • NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION

    RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION

    AC/323(HFM-155)TP/287 www.rto.nato.int

    RTO TECHNICAL REPORT TR-HFM-155

    Human Systems Integration for Network Centric Warfare

    (Intégration des systèmes humains dans les opérations réseaux centrées)

    This Report documents the findings of Task Group HFM-155: Human Systems

    Integration for Network Centric Warfare. HFM-155 focused on networked

    enabled capability and operations, and identified, defined, and

    documented a solution approach for challenges faced by

    key decision-makers in the Defence enterprise.

    Published February 2010

    Distribution and Availability on Back Cover

    http://www.rto.nato.int/

  • NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION

    RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION

    AC/323(HFM-155)TP/287 www.rto.nato.int

    RTO TECHNICAL REPORT TR-HFM-155

    Human Systems Integration for Network Centric Warfare

    (Intégration des systèmes humains dans les opérations réseaux centrées)

    This Report documents the findings of Task Group HFM-155: Human Systems

    Integration for Network Centric Warfare. HFM-155 focused on networked

    enabled capability and operations, and identified, defined, and

    documented a solution approach for challenges faced by

    key decision-makers in the Defence enterprise.

    http://www.rto.nato.int/

  • ii RTO-TR-HFM-155

    The Research and Technology Organisation (RTO) of NATO

    RTO is the single focus in NATO for Defence Research and Technology activities. Its mission is to conduct and promote co-operative research and information exchange. The objective is to support the development and effective use of national defence research and technology and to meet the military needs of the Alliance, to maintain a technological lead, and to provide advice to NATO and national decision makers. The RTO performs its mission with the support of an extensive network of national experts. It also ensures effective co-ordination with other NATO bodies involved in R&T activities.

    RTO reports both to the Military Committee of NATO and to the Conference of National Armament Directors. It comprises a Research and Technology Board (RTB) as the highest level of national representation and the Research and Technology Agency (RTA), a dedicated staff with its headquarters in Neuilly, near Paris, France. In order to facilitate contacts with the military users and other NATO activities, a small part of the RTA staff is located in NATO Headquarters in Brussels. The Brussels staff also co-ordinates RTO’s co-operation with nations in Middle and Eastern Europe, to which RTO attaches particular importance especially as working together in the field of research is one of the more promising areas of co-operation.

    The total spectrum of R&T activities is covered by the following 7 bodies: • AVT Applied Vehicle Technology Panel • HFM Human Factors and Medicine Panel • IST Information Systems Technology Panel • NMSG NATO Modelling and Simulation Group • SAS System Analysis and Studies Panel • SCI Systems Concepts and Integration Panel • SET Sensors and Electronics Technology Panel

    These bodies are made up of national representatives as well as generally recognised ‘world class’ scientists. They also provide a communication link to military users and other NATO bodies. RTO’s scientific and technological work is carried out by Technical Teams, created for specific activities and with a specific duration. Such Technical Teams can organise workshops, symposia, field trials, lecture series and training courses. An important function of these Technical Teams is to ensure the continuity of the expert networks.

    RTO builds upon earlier co-operation in defence research and technology as set-up under the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) and the Defence Research Group (DRG). AGARD and the DRG share common roots in that they were both established at the initiative of Dr Theodore von Kármán, a leading aerospace scientist, who early on recognised the importance of scientific support for the Allied Armed Forces. RTO is capitalising on these common roots in order to provide the Alliance and the NATO nations with a strong scientific and technological basis that will guarantee a solid base for the future.

    The content of this publication has been reproduced directly from material supplied by RTO or the authors.

    Published February 2010

    Copyright © RTO/NATO 2010 All Rights Reserved

    ISBN 978-92-837-0096-8

    Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only. The approval of the RTA Information Management Systems Branch is required for more than one copy to be made or an extract included in another publication. Requests to do so should be sent to the address on the back cover.

  • RTO-TR-HFM-155 iii

    Table of Contents

    Page

    List of Figures v

    List of Tables vi

    Foreword vii

    Programme Committee viii

    Executive Summary and Synthèse ES-1

    Chapter 1 – Overview 1-1 1.1 Introduction 1-1 1.2 Background (from TOR) 1-1 1.3 Objectives (from TOR) 1-3 1.4 Approach 1-3 1.5 Purpose 1-6

    Chapter 2 – Human View 2-1 2.1 Introduction 2-1 2.2 Architecture Frameworks 2-1 2.3 The NATO Human View 2-2

    2.3.1 HV-A Concept 2-3 2.3.2 HV-B Constraints 2-4 2.3.3 HV-C Tasks 2-4 2.3.4 HV-D Roles 2-5 2.3.5 HV-E Human Network 2-5 2.3.6 HV-F Training 2-5 2.3.7 HV-G Metrics 2-6 2.3.8 HV-H Human Dynamics 2-6

    2.4 Integration with NATO Architecture Framework 2-8

    Chapter 3 – Modeling and Simulation 3-1 3.1 Introduction 3-1

    3.1.1 Assumptions 3-2 3.1.2 Conclusions 3-4

    3.2 Modeling and Simulation of Human Views 3-4 3.3 Types of Simulation 3-7

    3.3.1 Simulations of Discrete Human Views 3-8 3.3.2 Simulations of Combinations of Human Views 3-12 3.3.3 Simulation of Performance: Case Study Using IMPRINT to Model Combined 3-13

    Human Views

  • iv RTO-TR-HFM-155

    3.3.4 HV-C Tasks, HV-D Roles and HV-E Human Networks: Modelling Collaboration 3-18 and Communication Processes

    3.3.5 HV-E Human Networks: Networks and Teams 3-20 3.3.6 HV-E Human Networks and HV-C: Network Topologies 3-22 3.3.7 Network Metrics: Packet Loss and Delay 3-24

    3.4 Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation 3-27 3.4.1 A Probabilistic Approach using Agent-Based Simulation 3-28 3.4.2 Combining Agent-Based Simulations with Network Topologies 3-30

    3.5 Conclusions 3-32

    Chapter 4 – Experimentation 4-1 4.1 Introduction 4-1 4.2 Human Dimensions of NEC 4-2 4.3 Experimentation in NEC 4-4 4.4 Method 4-6 4.5 Results 4-7

    4.5.1 Survey 4-8 4.5.1.1 Types of Experimentation 4-8 4.5.1.2 Independent Variables 4-9 4.5.1.3 Dependent Variables 4-10 4.5.1.4 Scenarios, (Synthetic) Environments, and Instruments 4-12

    4.5.2 Interviews 4-13 4.6 Conclusions and Recommendations 4-14

    Chapter 5 – Recommendations 5-1

    Chapter 6 – References 6-1

    Annex A – Technical Activity Proposal (TAP) A-1

    Annex B – Terms of Reference B-1

    Annex C – Papers and Presentations C-1

    Annex D – Measures of Effectiveness and Modelling in Command and Control – D-1 Swedish Experiences

    Annex E – Bibliography from Experimentation Survey E-1

    Enclosure 1 – The NATO Human View Handbook

    Enclosure 2 – NATO Human View Quick Start Guide

  • RTO-TR-HFM-155 v

    List of Figures

    Figure Page

    Figure 1-1 Modified NEC Benefits Chain 1-1 Figure 1-2 Relating Human Views to System Engineering 1-6 Figure 2-1 Relationships between HV Products 2-3 Figure 2-2 Relationship of Human Dynamics to HV Static Products 2-7 Figure 2-3 NATO Human View Products Integrated with NATO Architecture Framework 2-8

    Figure 3-1 Sample Progression of HVs Development Showing Two Different Levels of 3-5 Enterprise Definitions, with the Order Progressing from One Blue Star to Another Figure 3-2 Decomposition of UAV Mission 3-8 Figure 3-3 Roles X Functions 3-9 Figure 3-4 Extract from Critical Path Analysis 3-10 Figure 3-5 Predicted Mission Times 3-10 Figure 3-6 Task-Network Model of UAV With and Without IAI 3-11 Figure 3-7 Screen Shot of a MOSID Interface in IPME 3-13 Figure 3-8 Initial HV Dynamics Schema 3-14 Figure 3-9 Predicted Task Time and Accuracy Measures 3-17 Figure 3-10 IMPRINT Workload Results 3-18 Figure 3-11 Elements of the K3-Technique for the Graphical Modeling of Cooperative Processes 3-19 Figure 3-12 UAV Deployment Modelled Using K3 3-20 Figure 3-13 Social Network Diagrams 3-21 Figure 3-14 Examples of Different Network Structures 3-22 Figure 3-15 SAS-065 Space of Command and Control 3-23 Figure 3-16 Mapping Dekker’s Results to the SAS-065 Space of Command and Control 3-24 Figure 3-17 Converting the Hierarchical OODA 3-25 Figure 3-18 Operation Mechanism of Event Generator 3-25 Figure 3-19 Event Generation Network 3-26 Figure 3-20 Service Delay Changes with Network Size Structure into an OpNet Model 3-27 Figure 3-21 Human Information Processing as Probabilistic Transfer Model 3-29 Figure 3-22 Visualization of a Single Simulation Run of an RECCE Mission with UAV 3-30 Deployment Figure 3-23 UAV Flying Around Environment in REPAST Model 3-31 Figure 3-24 Alternative Network Structures Surround