Hittites, Assyrians, Israel Departed to Babylon the Royal family, the aristocracy, and skilled...
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C H A P T E R 2 B A P W O R L D H I S T O R Y
Hittites, Assyrians, Israel
The ancient Hittite city of Hattusha, in Turkey.
Old Kingdom (1700-1500 BCE) New Kingdom, aka Hittite Empire (1400-1200 BCE) Anatolia Horse drawn chariots = military power 1st developed a technique tools & weapons of iron Akkadian became language of diplomacy Elamites & Hittites adapted the cuneiform system Fell to unidentified attackers 1200 BCE
Hittite Territory at the height of their Empire.
The Hittite’s Three Man Chariot. Two archers and a driver in each chariot made this a fearsome offensive weapon.
Assyrian Empire, 911-612 BCE
A stone carving of the Assyrians conquering an Egyptian town in their war on Egypt.
A drawing of the Assyrian capitol of Nineveh.
Nineveh under siege by the Babylonians and Medes.
The ruins of Nineveh.
The Masqah (Maas-KAH) Gate of Nineveh.
A mythological beast called a Lammasu, from the gates of Nineveh.
Created an empire larger than any previous one Dedicated to the enrichment of the imperial center at
the expense of the subjugated periphery
Believed that god chose the king Normally the king chose a son to succeed him Military leader, supervised the state religion Overseeing the upkeep of the temples Ashur, chief god
Iron weapons an advantage Cavalry provided speed and mobility Engineers developed machinery & tactics for
besieging fortified towns ¡ Tunnels under walls ¡ Mobile towers for arches ¡ Applied battering rams to weak points
Used terror tactics to discourage resistance & rebellion
Mass deportations – moved entire towns
Loose collection of nomadic groups engaged in herding and caravan traffic who became sedentary, agricultural people
Transformed from having a desert god to the concept of a single deity
Creating ethical and intellectual traditions that underlie the beliefs and values of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Few natural resources
1250 BCE - 1200 BCE Destruction of many Canaanite towns hints at a probable invasion of the Israelites into Canaan
1200 BCE - 1100 BCE Hebrew tribes settle Canaan c. 1020 BCE - c. 1000 BCE Saul reigns first king of Israel 1000 BCE David captures Jerusalem 1000 BCE Rise of the kingdom of Israel 965 BCE - 928 BCE Solomon is king of Israel 950 BCE Solomon builds the first Temple of Jerusalem 841 BCE Israel pays tribute to Assyria c. 740 BCE Conquest of Israel 721 BCE Israel is conquered by Assyria.
Modern Jerusalem. Walls of the old city indicated by red arrow.
Origins, Exodus & Settlement
Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) compiled 5th c BCE ¡ Tells the story of Abraham and his descendants ¡ Abraham was born in Ur, rejected idol worship, traveled
to Israel Hebrew language of the Bible reflects the speech of
the Israelites until about 500 BCE when it was supplanted by Aramaic
Children of Israel – 12 tribes
A map of the traditional route of the ‘Exodus’ from Egypt.
Saul, 1st king of Israel around 1020 BCE David, r ca. 1000-960 BCE
¡ Made Jerusalem the capital ¡ Brought Ark to Jerusalem making city religious & political
Solomon, David’s son, r ca. 960-920 BCE ¡ Trade with king of Phoenician Tyre to Red Sea for gold, ivory,
jewels, sandalwood and exotic animals ¡ Built First Temple, 10th c BCE to be religious center for Yahweh ¡ Priests became powerful & wealthy class
Split monarchy into two kingdoms ¡ Israel in north with Samaria as capital ¡ Judah, in south territory around Jerusalem
A diagram of the ancient temple of Solomon.
Ancient Kingdom of Israel and its neighbors
The First Temple period ended around 587 BCE, as the Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar II laid waste to Solomon's Temple and took a significant number of Jews captive in response to a revolt. ¡ Departed to Babylon the Royal family, the aristocracy,
and skilled workers ¡ Diaspora - scattering
In 538 BCE, after fifty years of Babylonian captivity, Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple.
Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, seventy years after the destruction of the First Temple
Monotheism – belief in one divine being Jews lived by a rigid set of rules
¡ Dietary restrictions – no pork & shellfish; meat & dairy products not be consumed together
¡ Ritual baths – used to achieve spiritual purity ¡ Sabbath – 7th day of the week – Saturday – no work, rest
only ¡ Ban on marrying non Jews
This isolated them from other people and created a powerful sense of community
The Ruins of Ancient Tyre, a Phoenician trading port.
The Phoenician alphabet.
Developed Canaanite models into an “alphabetic” system of writing with about two dozen symbols
Little writing survives as perishable papyrus was used
A Phoenician-style vessel.
The Phoenician empire. Obviously, very coastal and thus based on trade and maritime pursuits.