Hittites, Assyrians, Israel Departed to Babylon the Royal family, the aristocracy, and skilled...

download Hittites, Assyrians, Israel Departed to Babylon the Royal family, the aristocracy, and skilled workers

of 33

  • date post

    23-Mar-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Hittites, Assyrians, Israel Departed to Babylon the Royal family, the aristocracy, and skilled...

  • C H A P T E R 2 B A P W O R L D H I S T O R Y

    Hittites, Assyrians, Israel

  • HITTITES

  • The ancient Hittite city of Hattusha, in Turkey.

  • Hittites

      Old Kingdom (1700-1500 BCE)   New Kingdom, aka Hittite Empire (1400-1200 BCE)   Anatolia   Horse drawn chariots = military power   1st developed a technique tools & weapons of iron   Akkadian became language of diplomacy   Elamites & Hittites adapted the cuneiform system   Fell to unidentified attackers 1200 BCE

  • Hittite Territory at the height of their Empire.

  • The Hittite’s Three Man Chariot. Two archers and a driver in each chariot made this a fearsome offensive weapon.

  • ASSYRIANS

  • Assyrian Empire, 911-612 BCE

  • A stone carving of the Assyrians conquering an Egyptian town in their war on Egypt.

  • A drawing of the Assyrian capitol of Nineveh.

  • Nineveh under siege by the Babylonians and Medes.

  • The ruins of Nineveh.

  • The Masqah (Maas-KAH) Gate of Nineveh.

  • A mythological beast called a Lammasu, from the gates of Nineveh.

  • Assyrian Empire

      Created an empire larger than any previous one   Dedicated to the enrichment of the imperial center at

    the expense of the subjugated periphery

      Believed that god chose the king   Normally the king chose a son to succeed him   Military leader, supervised the state religion   Overseeing the upkeep of the temples   Ashur, chief god

  • Military advantage

      Iron weapons an advantage   Cavalry provided speed and mobility   Engineers developed machinery & tactics for

    besieging fortified towns ¡  Tunnels under walls ¡  Mobile towers for arches ¡  Applied battering rams to weak points

      Used terror tactics to discourage resistance & rebellion

      Mass deportations – moved entire towns

  • HEBREWS Israel

  • Israelites

      Loose collection of nomadic groups engaged in herding and caravan traffic who became sedentary, agricultural people

      Transformed from having a desert god to the concept of a single deity

      Creating ethical and intellectual traditions that underlie the beliefs and values of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

      Few natural resources

  • Timeline

      1250 BCE - 1200 BCE Destruction of many Canaanite towns hints at a probable invasion of the Israelites into Canaan

      1200 BCE - 1100 BCE Hebrew tribes settle Canaan   c. 1020 BCE - c. 1000 BCE Saul reigns first king of Israel   1000 BCE David captures Jerusalem   1000 BCE Rise of the kingdom of Israel   965 BCE - 928 BCE Solomon is king of Israel   950 BCE Solomon builds the first Temple of Jerusalem   841 BCE Israel pays tribute to Assyria   c. 740 BCE Conquest of Israel   721 BCE Israel is conquered by Assyria.

  • Modern Jerusalem. Walls of the old city indicated by red arrow.

  • Origins, Exodus & Settlement

      Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) compiled 5th c BCE ¡  Tells the story of Abraham and his descendants ¡  Abraham was born in Ur, rejected idol worship, traveled

    to Israel   Hebrew language of the Bible reflects the speech of

    the Israelites until about 500 BCE when it was supplanted by Aramaic

      Children of Israel – 12 tribes

  • A map of the traditional route of the ‘Exodus’ from Egypt.

  • MONARCHY

      Saul, 1st king of Israel around 1020 BCE   David, r ca. 1000-960 BCE

    ¡  Made Jerusalem the capital ¡  Brought Ark to Jerusalem making city religious & political

      Solomon, David’s son, r ca. 960-920 BCE ¡  Trade with king of Phoenician Tyre to Red Sea for gold, ivory,

    jewels, sandalwood and exotic animals ¡  Built First Temple, 10th c BCE to be religious center for Yahweh ¡  Priests became powerful & wealthy class

      Split monarchy into two kingdoms ¡  Israel in north with Samaria as capital ¡  Judah, in south territory around Jerusalem

  • A diagram of the ancient temple of Solomon.

  • Ancient Kingdom of Israel and its neighbors

  •   The First Temple period ended around 587 BCE, as the Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar II laid waste to Solomon's Temple and took a significant number of Jews captive in response to a revolt. ¡  Departed to Babylon the Royal family, the aristocracy,

    and skilled workers ¡  Diaspora - scattering

      In 538 BCE, after fifty years of Babylonian captivity, Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple.

      Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, seventy years after the destruction of the First Temple

  • Jewish Identity

      Monotheism – belief in one divine being   Jews lived by a rigid set of rules

    ¡  Dietary restrictions – no pork & shellfish; meat & dairy products not be consumed together

    ¡  Ritual baths – used to achieve spiritual purity ¡  Sabbath – 7th day of the week – Saturday – no work, rest

    only ¡  Ban on marrying non Jews

      This isolated them from other people and created a powerful sense of community

  • PHOENICIANS

  • The Ruins of Ancient Tyre, a Phoenician trading port.

  • The Phoenician alphabet.

    Developed Canaanite models into an “alphabetic” system of writing with about two dozen symbols

    Little writing survives as perishable papyrus was used

  • A Phoenician-style vessel.

  • The Phoenician empire. Obviously, very coastal and thus based on trade and maritime pursuits.