Cours Uni 4 - La Genetique de Population

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  • 8/13/2019 Cours Uni 4 - La Genetique de Population

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    15

    I

    1La population

    1

    2Le pool gntique

    1.2

    Le pool ggntique

    2.2

    :

    2

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    [A]11=[A]n[a]3=[a]nf([A]) = n([A])/N = 11/14 = 0,785

    f([a]) = n([a])/N = 3/14 = 0,215

    AA6=n(AA)Aa5=n(Aa)aa3=n(aa)

    f(AA) = D = n(AA)/N = 6/14 = 0,428

    f(Aa) = H = n(Aa)/N = 5/14 = 0,357

    f(aa) = R = n(aa)/N = 3/14 = 0,215

    D+H+R = 0,428 + 0,357 + 0,215 = 1

    3 1 aA3

    A

    f(A) = p

    f(A) = ( n(Aa)+ 2n(AA))/2N = n(Aa)/2N + 2n(AA)/2N

    = ( n(Aa)/N) /2 + n(AA)/N

    q = H /2 + D

    p = 0,357/2 + 0,428 = 0,621

    a

    f(a) = q

    f(a) = ( n(Aa)+ 2n(aa))/2N = n(Aa)/2N + 2n(aa)/2N

    =( n(Aa)/N)/2 + n(aa)/N

    P = H/2 + R

    p = 0,357/2 + 0,215= 0,378

    p+q = H/2 + D + H/2 + R = D + H + R = 1

    3Hardy-Weinberg

    1.3H-W

    4

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    2.3H-W

    H-WG1

    (N) aA G0: Af(A) = p af(a) = q f(AA)=Df(Aa)=Hf(aa)=R

    G0

    5

    G1

    f(AA) = p2

    f(Aa) = 2pq

    f(aa) = q2

    f(AA) + f(Aa) + f(aa) = p2+ 2pq +q

    2= (p+q)

    2= 1

    G1

    A= p(p+q)+ 2pq/2p2

    =f(AA) + 1/2 f(Aa)f(A) =

    p + q = 1f(A) = p

    a= q(q+p)+ 2pq/2q2=f(aa) + 1/2 f(Aa)f(a) =

    p + q = 1f(a) = q

    H-W

    (p + q)2

    pq

    f(AA) = n[AA]/N = p2

    f(Aa) = n[Aa]/N = 2pq

    f(aa) = n[aa]/N = q2

    4

    6

    p = q = 0,5f(aa) = 1/4 = 0,25 f(Aa) = 2/4 = 0, 5 f(AA) = 1/4 = 0,25

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    IIH-W

    1X2

    2

    7

    f(AA) = n[AA]/N = p2

    n[AA] = N x p2

    f(Aa) = n[Aa]/N = 2pq n[Aa] = N x 2pq

    f(aa) = n[aa]/N = q2

    n[aa] = N x q2

    2H-W

    1.2

    Shorthorn

    Shorthorn342RR423

    R'R144R'R'

    1

    2

    3

    8

    1RRRRRR

    N342 + 423 + 144 = 909N =

    f(RR) = n(RR)/N = 342/909 = 0,376 f(RR) = n(RR)/N = 423/909 = 0,465

    f(RR) = n(RR)/N = 144/909 = 0,158

    + 0,456/2 = 0,604f(R) = p = f(RR) + f(RR)/2 = 0,376

    + 0,456/2 = 0,396f(R)= q = f(RR) + f(RR)/2 = 0,158

    2X2

    nn

    n(RR) = 342 , n(RR) = 432 , n(RR) = 144

    n'(RR) = p2xN = 0,604

    2x909 = 331 , n(RR) = 2pqxN = 0,604x0,396x909 = 434 , n(RR) = q

    2xN = 0,396

    2x909 = 142

    = (342331)2/331 + (423434)

    2/434 + (144142)

    2/142

    X2

    = 0,325 + 0,278 + 0,028 = 0,631

    X2

    3,841

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    2.2

    1

    Rhsus

    RhDd

    DRh+ ][

    d[ Rh-]

    1976400230[Rh+]

    1

    2(D//d)

    9

    1

    dq

    [ Rh-]170d//d

    f(dd) = n(dd)/N = 170/400 = 0,425

    f(dd) = q2= 0,425

    q = 0,425 = 0,652

    Dp

    p + q = 1p = 1qp= 10,652 = 0,348

    2D//d

    H-Wf(Dd) = 2pq = 2x0,652x0,348 = 0,453

    D//dn(Dd)f(Dd) = n(Dd)/Nn(Dd) = f(Dd) x N = 0,453 x 400 = 181

    2

    10

    1m+//

    m

    -m

    +//m

    +

    m+

    2f(m-m

    -)

    f(m-m

    -) = n(m

    -m

    -)/N = 1/ 3000

    f(m-m

    -) = 0,00033

    3m+//

    m

    -

    H-W= 0,00033q2

    f(m-m

    -) =f(m

    -) = q = 0,00033 = 0,018

    f(m+) = p = 1 q = 1 0,018 = 0,982

    f(m+m-) = 2 pq = 2x0,018x0,982 = 0,035

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    3H-W

    X

    S

    H-W

    SpqG0

    1G0+1

    X Y

    Xw (q)X

    s (p)Y

    Xw (q)X

    wX

    w (q

    2)X

    sX

    w (pq)X

    wY (q)

    Xs (p)X

    sX

    w (pq)X

    sX

    s (p

    2)X

    sY (p)

    2H/W

    3

    11

    1(G0+1)

    f (XSY) = pf(X

    wY) = q

    f (XsX

    s) = p

    2f(X

    wX

    w) = q

    2f (X

    SX

    w) = 2pq

    2

    A

    f(XAY) = p

    p2+ 2pqf(X

    AX

    A) + f(X

    AX

    a) =

    a

    f(XaY) = q

    q2f(XaXa) =

    q

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    2.1

    13

    10-9

    10-4

    2La slection naturelle

    1.2

    2.2

    14

    :1

    ................................................. :2

    ................................................

    15

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    3.2

    16

    g19681928f(g) =

    0,05Gf(G) = 0,95

    4 2

    17

    :

    n(phnotypG1)/n(phnotypG0)

    3La drive gntique

    1 3

    18

    f[A]=0

    f[a]=1

    f[A]=0,2

    f[a]=0,8

    f[A]=0,9

    f[a]=0,1

    f[A]=1

    f[a]=0

    f[A]=0,5

    f[a]=0,5

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    AOO

    A(40%)

    2 3

    19

    a

    a1f(a)=1a

    3aa

    4Les migrations

    1 4

    20

    R0

    2 4

    21

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    (m)

    m = n/(n + N)

    n

    N

    A

    f(A) = p = (1m)p + mp0

    m

    pAp0A

    f(A) = p = (10,33)x0,28 + 0,33x0,67

    p = 0,41

    af(a) = q = 1p = 10,41 = 0,59

    Aa

    22

    a

    a

    IVEspce1

    1 1

    22

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    2 1Physiologie

    3 1Gntique

    ADNADN

    23

    Lactose D.

    2

    H-W