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    Whats new in Concrete

    By Frank A Kozeliski, P.E.Kozeliski Consulting LLC

    Gallup, New Mexico

    November 12, 2010Track Five

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    Pervious ConcreteWhen it rains. . .. . . It d r a i n s !Minimal finesConcrete MixCoarse Agg. Cement and

    Water

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    Low Impact Development Pervious Concrete Directly Infiltrates Water Through The Pavement

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    Conventional Pavement Asphalt (Background)Pervious Concrete (Foreground) - Raining

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    Base/Sub-Base ConsiderationsPervious Concrete

    Typical Detention Layer = 6 Thickness increases for

    storage and to get waterout of pervious for freezethaw

    No detention layer requiredwhere you have well

    draining native soil

    Subgrade compaction95% Standard Proctor90-92% Modified Proctor

    40 % voidOr a Detention Layer

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    Compaction Methods of pervious

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    Pervious placement with a roller screed

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    Las Cruces, New Mexico

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    Initial Ingredients for aPervious Concrete Mix Design

    Cement ------------------------ --500 lbs cu yd to # 8 Aggregate ------- 2600 lbs / cuydNo hot water cold water only 18-21 gal/cuyd

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    www.perviouspavement.org

    Batching Mixing Transporting Aggregate moisture content prior to batchingZero Near 0 Slump

    (Very low W/C Ratio - .27 - .34)

    Very sensitive jobsite water additionsTypical Admix (incl. Superplazticizer)

    Plus HSA (Hydration Stabilizing extremeretarders) most apps.Plus VMA (Viscosity Modifying) common

    AEA Cold climates

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    Pervious at work

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    Full-Depth Reclamation with Cement

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    Examples of Pavement Distress Alligator cracking Rutting Excessive patching

    Base failures Potholes Soil stains on surface

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    Use of in-place materials Little or no material hauled off and dumped Maintains or improves existing grade Conserves virgin material Saves cost by using in-place

    investment Saves energy by reducing

    mining and hauls Very sustainable process

    Advantages of the FDR Process

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    18012

    4,500

    300

    2,700

    0

    3,000500

    1 mile of 24-foot wide, 2-lane road, with a 6-inch base

    Sustainable Element of FDR Process

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    Pulverize, Shape, Add Cement, Mix In Place,Compact, and Surface

    GranularBase

    Subgrade

    Existingroad

    BituminousSurfacing

    Subgrade

    Pulverized

    Pulverizationto desired

    depth

    Subgrade

    Pulverized

    Removal ofexcess material(if necessary)and shaping

    Subgrade

    Stabilized

    Addition ofcement, mixing,reshaping, and

    compaction

    Subgrade

    Stabilized

    New Surfacing

    Final surfaceapplication

    FDR Construction Process

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    Cement SpreadingCement is spread on top of thepulverized material in ameasured amount in eithera dry or slurry form

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    Blending of Materials andMoisture Addition

    Cement isblended intopulverized,reclaimedmaterial and, withthe addition ofwater, is brought tooptimum moisture

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    Traffic and Surfacing Completed FDR base can be opened

    immediately to low-speed local trafficand to construction equipment

    Subsequent pavement layers can beplaced at any time

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    Whitetopping,

    Ultrathin WhitetoppingPavement Rehabilitation

    Options

    B b l d h

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    But concrete can be placed over theexisting asphalt as

    WHITETOPPING Avoids asphalt reconstruction problems

    Can be placed on pavementsin poor or bad condition

    Little or no pre-overlay repair needed

    Minimal rain delays

    Maintain traffic on existing surface

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    Whitetopping

    By Definition...- Thicknesses at least 4to 6

    - Does not depend on bond tounderlying surface

    - Joint spacing is less critical

    - Existing asphalt pavementis base

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    UTW Design Procedure

    New Engineering Bulletin for1998 Conventional Whitetopping

    Design Construction Performance

    Ultra-thin Whitetopping Design Construction Performance

    Crystal, New Mexico, NHA street

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    Finished Street

    Crystal, New Mexico, NHA

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    White toping in Durango, Co.

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    Honduras, Central America

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    ACI 330R-08Guide for the Design Concrete Parking

    Lots and Construction of

    CoreyCemex

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    ACI has developed recommended design procedurespecifically for parking lots

    Recognizes construction integrity of rigidpavement materials. Recommends reduction orelimination of granular base:

    ACI 330 recognizes parking lots are different than astreet/roadway.

    Load is in the Interior Primary purpose is to store & move vehicles Lot may be a water collector May need to accommodate lighting, islands,

    landscaping

    Given:

    Soil Strength

    Concrete Strength

    Traffic Demand

    Determines:

    Thickness

    Jointing

    Reinforcing (opt.)

    Subbase (opt.)

    WE RECOMMEND FOLLOWING ACI 330 GUIDELINEFOR DESIGN OF CONCRETE PARKING LOTS

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    Major parkingfacilities

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    Longitudinal joint

    Transverse joint

    SubgradeSubbase or base

    Surface Texture

    Surface smoothnessThickness Design

    Dowel bars

    Concrete materials

    Tiebars

    BASIC COMPONENTS OF A CONRETE PAVEMENT

    ACI 330 ASSIGNS TRAFFIC TO DESIGN CATEGORIES DEPENDING ON TYPE

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    ACI 330 ASSIGNS TRAFFIC TO DESIGN CATEGORIES DEPENDING ON TYPEVEHICLE AND PARKING AREA OF USE

    HOW CONCRETE AND ASPHALT PAVEMENTS

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    HOW CONCRETE AND ASPHALT PAVEMENTSARE DIFFERENT

    Loads are distributed over a large area through slabaction.

    Minor deflections. Low subgrade contact pressures. Subgrade uniformity is more important

    than strength.

    Loads are more concentrated. Deflections are higher Subgrade, base and subbase strength are very important. usually require more layers and greater thickness for

    optimally transmitting load to the subgrade

    Concretes Rigidity spreads the load over a large area and keeps pressures on the subgrade low

    7000 lbs load.

    pressure ~3 - 7 psi

    7000 lbs load.

    pressure~ 15 - 20 psi

    Concrete Pavements are rigid Asphalt pavements are flexible

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    Parking Area

    Entrance/ Exit Lanes

    4 to 6

    6 to 8

    DIFFERENT TRAFFIC AREAS CAN HAVE DIFFERENT THICKNESSES

    EQUIVALENT STRUCTURES ARE NECESSARY

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    EQUIVALENT STRUCTURES ARE NECESSARYORDER TO COMPARE DESIGNS

    5.0 Concrete

    6.5 Concrete

    8.0

    6 Gran. Base

    Concrete

    2.0

    10 Gran. Base

    Asphalt

    4.0

    10 Gran. Base

    Asphalt

    10 Gran. Base

    Asphalt8.0

    4.0

    6 Gran. Base

    Asphalt

    6.0

    6 Gran. Base

    Asphalt

    6 Gran. Base

    Asphalt10.0

    Light TrafficADTT 3 trucks/day,

    11,500 ESALs

    MediumTraffic

    ADTT 100 trucks/day,405,000 ESALs

    Heavy TrafficADTT 500 trucks/day,

    3,500,00 ESALs

    Thin Asphalt Thick AsphaltACI 330 Concrete

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    Roller Compacted Concrete

    It has the basic ingredients as conventional concreteFresh RCC is stiffer than zero-slump conventional

    Concrete. Its stiff enough to remain stable undervibratory rollers.

    Placed with asphalt-type paver equippedConstructed without forms, dowels or reinforcementJoints are spaced farther apart than conventional

    pavements.

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    Log Sort Yards

    Vancouver Island, BC, 1978

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    Military Facilities

    Ft. Lewis, WA,1986

    Ft. Drum, NY, 1990

    Ft. Carson, CO, 2008

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    Intermodal Facilities

    Burlington Northern, Denver, CO

    Central Station, Detroit, MI

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    Parking Areas

    134 acre parking facility at Saturn plant,TN (1988-89)

    Honda facility, AL (2003)(207 acres; 1.2 mil sy)

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    Highway Shoulders

    I-285 highway shouldersAtlanta, GA

    C P i i h Li h i h

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    Concrete Paving with Light weightaggregate make pavements last longer

    This is called Internal Curing of concreteLight weight agg. Provides moisture inside the

    concrete due to low Water Cementitious ratioCement 451 lb/yd Fly Ash 113 lb/ ydCoarse 1540 lb/yd Light wt 300 lb/ydFine agg 1099 lb/yd Water 242 # 29 galFc = 4500 psi

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    ICF -- Insulated Concrete Forms

    Picture

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    ICF Insulated Concrete Forms

    Government push mandates to Maximize energy Design Professionals need to access Energy

    efficient material ICF structures require 44% less energy to heat and

    32% less energy to cool Resulting in reduced up front capital cost Designing with ICFs proven way to deliver

    substantial saving in operating cost and owner ship

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    ICF Insulated Concrete Forms

    Building energy-efficient is Necessary nolonger a choice

    Green buildings are emerging across Americawithin federal agencies

    Provide higher structural performance andgreater confort

    Help withstand earthquakes, hurricanes andtornados

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    ICF Insulated Concrete Forms

    Ideal wall system for high-risk geographies Mass wall reduces noise, multi-hour fire

    resistance Stable indoor temperatures Well suited to hotels, multi-unit walls theaters

    hotels, schools and churches. Resistance to mold mildew and pests

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    ICF Insulated Concrete Forms

    picture

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    Pervious Drive way at a ICF house in Gallup, NewMexico

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    Concrete Mix Designs Use Combined Aggregates .

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    Proportion in accordance

    with ACI 211.1 Previous field experience Laboratory trial batches

    Batch, mix, & deliver byASTM C94 or C685

    Concrete Mix Designs Use Combined Aggregates .

    WELL GRADED AGGREGATE DISTRIBUTION WILL REDUCE PASTE CONTE

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    A mixture of particle sizes is more efficient at fillingvoid space than all particles of any one size

    Larger maximum sizes also help graded aggregatesfill volume more effectively

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    MIX DESIGN IS A BALANCE BETWEEN ECONOMICS AND PERFORMANC

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    What shrinks? Aggregates? - No Paste? - Yes

    Cementitous, water Lower paste = lower

    shrinkage

    Factors affecting pastecontent

    Maximum aggregate size Combined aggregate

    grading Fineness of sand and

    impurities Fineness of cementitious

    materials

    Limiting Paste Content is Key to reducing Shrinkage

    OPTIMIZED AGGREGATE GRADATION

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    CAN AFFECT COSTS

    $77.42$72.72

    Standard Mix Optimized Mix

    Est. Contractor Concrete CY Price ($ / CY)

    StateMix

    OptimizedMix

    Cement, Lbs 545 425Water, Lbs 229 230

    Air, % 5.0 1.5

    W/C Ratio 0.42 0.54

    Cyl, 28-day PSI 6,900 6,300

    Beam, 28-day PSI 897 895

    LOUISIANA TEST RESULTS

    $27.25

    $21.25

    Standard Mix Optimized Mix

    Cement Cost ($ / CY)

    StandardPaving Mix

    (lbs/CY)

    Potential OptimizedPaving Mix (lbs/CY)

    Cement 500 430

    Ty-F Fly-ash 67 67

    Sand 1100 1115

    Coarse Agg (AASHTO#57)

    1885 1485

    Coarse Agg 2 (1/4 max) 480

    Water, Lbs 254 (28 gals) 220 (26 gals)

    W/C Ratio .448 .443

    Cement cost = $100 / ton

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    Self Consolidating Concrete

    Concrete that flows.Measure the spread of the concrete Inches Reduces the man hours for placementReduces the rubbing of the wall.Minimum to no honeycombCan place the concrete qucikerNo water added, keeps the Water Cementitious

    ratio low

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    Chemical Admixtures

    HIGH RANGE WATER REDUCING ADMIXTURES(Super Plasticizers)

    Reduces the water content by 12% to 30% whilemaintaining slump.

    Produces flowing concrete without the additionof water.

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    Chemical Admixtures

    HIGH RANGE WATER REDUCING ADMIXTURES

    Example:

    36 gal / yd x 8.33 lb/gal=300 lb/yd36 gal x 12% = 4.3 gal x 8.33 = 36 lbs36 gal x 30% = 10.8 gal x 8.33 = 90 lbs

    This is ASTM Type F (Normal Set)and Type G (Retarding Set).

    High range water reducing admixtures

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    High range water reducing admixturesadded at the site

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    High range ater red cing

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    High range water reducingadmixtures added at the site

    High range increases the slump 4 with 3gallons in a 10 cuyd load. Normally it would

    have taken 40 gallons of water to increasethe slump the same amount or 4 gallons percubic yard.

    36 gal x 12% = 4.3 gal x 8.33 = 36 lbs

    Flowable t St bl i t

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    Flowable - yet Stable mixture

    http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_2/Inverted%20Slump%20Test.MPG
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    High Range Water Reducer

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    High Range Water Reducerno Water added

    h i C i ?

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    What is Concrete Maturity?

    Originally developed in thelate 1940s & early 50s

    Accidents in the 1970s led tofurther maturity research

    Interest increased in the1980s as companies lookedfor ways to accelerateconstruction

    Wide spread adoption in theU.S. over the last 10 years

    Maturity is a proven, non-destructive, strength estimation technique thatuses time & temperature measurements to determine (in real-time) thestrength gain of in-place concrete.

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    4,000

    4,500

    5,000

    0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

    Maturity (C-Hours)

    Compressive Strength (psi)

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    How does Maturity work?

    Strength vs. Time

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    0 500 1000 1500

    Time, Hours

    Strength, PSI

    90 F

    73

    45

    What does this tell us?

    Strength vs. Maturity

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000

    Maturity, C*H

    Strength, PSI

    90 F

    7345

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    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    4,000

    4,500

    5,000

    0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

    Maturity (C-Hours)

    Com

    pressive Strength (psi)

    Day 1

    Day 2

    Day 4

    Day 7 Day 14

    Step 1: Generating a Relationship Curve

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    Step 3A: Convert Maturity to Strengthusing Relationship Curve

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    4,000

    4,500

    5,000

    0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

    Maturity (C-Hours)

    Compressive Strength (psi)

    3750

    4000

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    Moisture is critical during the curing process

    Detrimental effects of moisture loss

    Lowered concrete strength

    Shrinkage cracking & curling

    Long-term reductions in durability

    Moisture has long-term damaging effects

    Detrimental effects of moisture retention

    Damage to floor covering and adhesives

    Promotes mold growth

    Structural damage

    Measure Slab MoistureintelliRock Humidity Logger

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    Ideal for floor moisture applications

    (ASTM F 710, ASTM F 2170)

    Compliments/Replaces Calcium Chloride testing

    Typical threshold of 75% RH for Flooring

    Excellent forensic tool for moisture issues

    Compatible with the intelliRock Maturity &Temperature logging system

    intelliRock Humidity Logger

    intelliRock

    4 0 %

    S l a b

    D e p t h

    Hole LinerSealed

    w/SlilconeUp Walls

    Drill Point(Sample Volume)

    Open BottomFor Sampling

    intelliRock RHSensor

    E i f M i d M i

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    Equipment for Maturity and Moisture

    K S K

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    Komponent System K

    Shrinkage reducing Cement Add 80 lb bag to a yard of concrete Place as regular concrete Need to wet cure for 7 days Cost about $ 30.00 per cubic yard

    No Joints placement 100 x 200

    K t S t K

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    Komponent System K

    H lid I

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    Holiday Inn

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    R id S t C t

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    Rapid Set Concrete

    University and Central -- Albuquerque, NM You can open up the concrete in 24 hrs. Asphalt was removed on Friday evening,

    Concrete placed and opened on Monday. Added cost about $ 150 / cuyd due to the

    overtime and the cement added cost.

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    ASTM 1157 Cement

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    ASTM 1157 Cement

    This is a performance based cement and hasabout 10% inter ground limestone to meet

    EPA carbon requirements. You should see it insubmittals this next year. Do not be afraid aslong as you get strength.

    Performance Based Mix Designs

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    Performance Based Mix Designs

    In years to come you will get performancebase mix designs. You order 4000 psi with airand it is the ready mix producers to get thestrength. The engineer will accept the mix and

    may not know what was in the mix. (be ready)no more prescription mixes will be in ASTM

    Curing Concrete the first 24 hrs on site

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    Curing Concrete the first 24 hrs on site.

    ASTM No Loss of Moisture Keep cylinders between 60 & 80 Degrees For 6000 psi concrete cure between 68 & 78

    deg.

    Test Cylinders 4x8

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    Test Cylinders 4x8

    The new 318.08 Building Code recognizes the 4 x8 inch cylinder molds.

    A strength test is the average of 3 4 x 8.

    Before the code, recognized 2 6 x12 4 x 8 can be used for trial mixes and acceptance

    testing.

    Test Cylinders 4x8

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    Test Cylinders 4 x8

    Fill the test cylinder full rod it 25 timeswith a 3/8 rod with a rounded end. Tap the

    sides 10 to 15 times to close the voids. Fillthe other half full. Rod the cylinder 25 times

    just penetrating the first layer 1. Tap the

    sides again. Level the cylinder top.

    Test Cylinders 4x8

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    Test Cylinders 4 x8

    Cap the mold and place in water, coveringthe cylinders with water. Keep between 60 to80F. 24 hrs later take to the laboratory

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    32 cylinders in a box cost about $ 2500

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    40 cylinders in a thermal II curing box. Cost $ 3500

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    Decorative Concrete

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    Decorative Concrete

    Value added for the Residential ConcreteContractor or for the Home owner

    Learn how to do it and do it right if you aregoing to do Decorative Concrete

    Decorative Concrete

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    Decorative Concrete

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    ACI 332-08

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    ACI 332 08

    Code Requirements for ResidentialConcrete and Commentary

    The Concrete Requirements for ResidentialConcrete have changed.

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    ACI 332-08

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    ACI 332 08

    Has established 3 Weathering Probabilities1. Negligible (such as Hawaii)2. Moderate3. Severe (such as Alaska )

    Lines defining areas are approximate only.

    Severe

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    Severe

    Moderate

    Negligible

    Weathering Map for entrained air for Concrete

    Severe Weather (Type 3)

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    Severe Weather (Type 3)

    Drive ways, curbs, walkways,ramps, patios, porches,steps, and stairs exposed toweather and garage floorslabs.

    Fc = 4500 psi

    Maximum Slump - 5 Slump flow 24 to 28With High Range WRA

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    Long Haul Concrete over 2 Hours

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    Long Haul Concrete over 2 Hours

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    What is the plan cont.

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    Why one revolution per mile ????

    You are reducing the friction betweenthe cement and aggregate particles Thefriction builds up heat and heats up theconcrete

    The stiffer the mix the more friction andheat .

    What is the plan (cont.)

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    p ( )

    The flow-a-ability can be done with DELVO oran overdose of Type B & Type D retarders &water reducing retarder

    Go the 120 to 160 miles and get 120 to 160revolutions. Caution in cool weather you canincrease slump if the air is cooler than theconcrete. The concrete gets cooler in transit.

    What is the plan (cont.)

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    p ( )

    Arrive at the job site and mix for 5 minutes toget the material mixed and then check theslump. If it is a little stiff, use Super Plasticizerto increase the slump to 4 +/ -

    This is a method for 50 to 100 cuyd placementper day or one round of mixers. Not for lowslump curb and gutter machines

    ontrol Low Strength fill

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    ontrol Low Strength fillFlowable Fill Properties

    Slump 5 to 8

    Plastic Unit Wt 130 pcfC.B.R. 34 to 42Strength 35 psi to 150 psi

    Koz-Crete Flowable Fill Mi D i

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    Mix Design

    Cement 94 lb/cuydFines 3/8 max) 3000 lb/cuyd

    Water 50 gals) 416 lb/cuydColor depends)

    TOTAL 3510 lb/cuyd

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    Cement Burns

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    W i !!!!!

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    Contact with wet (unhardened) concrete, mortar, cement, orcement mixtures can cause SKIN IRRITATION, SEVERECHEMICAL BURNS (THIRD-DEGREE), or SERIOUS EYE DAMAGEFrequent exposure may be associated with irritant and/or allergic

    contact dermatitis. Wear waterproof gloves, a long-sleeved shirt,full-length trousers, and proper eye protection when working withthese materials.

    Source: PCA

    Warning !!!!!

    i

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    If you have to stand in wet concrete, use waterproof boots that are high enough to keep concrete from

    flowing into them. Wash wet concrete, mortar, cement,or cement mixtures from your skin immediately. Flusheyes with clean water immediately after contact.

    Indirect contact through clothing can be as serious as directcontact, so promptly rinse out wet concrete, mortar, cement,or cement mixtures from clothing. Seek immediate medicalattention if you have persistent or severe discomfort.

    Source: PCA

    Warning !!!!!

    Thank You!

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    Thank You!

    This concludes the What's new in Concrete

    Any Questions?Frank A. Kozeliski, P.E.

    Cause-a-Liskey

    Consulting EngineerGallup, New Mexico

    mailto:[email protected]