Collaborative teams toolkit mar 2009 dr shabon

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Ontario’s Community Family Health Teams Équipes de santé familiale communitaire de l’Ontario Ontario’s Aboriginal Health Access Centres Centres Autochtones d’accès aux soins de santé de l’Ontario Ontario’s Community Health Centres Les centres de santé communautaire en Ontario Supporting New Leaders in Developing Collaborative Teams: A Toolkit Updated January 2009
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Transcript of Collaborative teams toolkit mar 2009 dr shabon

Microsoft Word - Collaborative Teams Toolkit v7 FINAL.doc

Ontarios Community Family Health Teams

quipes de sant familialecommunitaire de lOntario

Ontarios Aboriginal Health Access Centres

Centres Autochtones daccsaux soins de sant de lOntario

Ontarios Community Health Centres

Les centres de santcommunautaire en Ontario

Supporting New Leaders in Developing Collaborative

Teams: A Toolkit

Updated January 2009


Table of Contents Acknowledgments

Pg. 3

Executive Summary

Pg. 4


Pg. 5

Module 1: Leadership

A. Background Pg. 7

B. Leadership Concepts Pg. 7

C. Leadership Styles Pg. 7

D. Leadership Qualities Pg. 8

E. Challenges in Leading Teams Pg. 13

F. Power in Teams and Organizations Pg. 17

G. Leading Change Pg. 19

H. Best Practices in Leadership Development

Pg. 21

I. Resources Pg. 21

J. References

Pg. 22

Module 2: Recruitment, Selection and Hiring Practices that Support Interprofessional Teams

A. Background Pg. 23

B. Hiring Professionals with the Essential Knowledge, Skills and Attributes

Pg. 24

C. Resources Pg. 31

D. References

Pg. 31

Module 3: Team Roles and Responsibilities

A. Background Pg. 32

B. Team Definition Pg. 32

C. Dimensions of Team Roles Pg. 35

D. References

Pg. 41

Module 4: Interpersonal Communications

A. Background Pg. 42

B. Communication Styles Pg. 43

C. Active Listening Skills Pg. 45

D. Communication and Conflict Pg. 47

E. Gender and Communication Pg. 47

F. Culture and Communication Pg. 48

G. Giving and Receiving Feedback Pg. 48

H. Resources Pg. 50

I. References Pg. 51


Module 5: Meetings

A. Background Pg. 52

B. To Meet or Not to Meet Pg. 52

C. Resources Pg. 59

D. References Pg. 60

The information contained in this document is confidential and proprietary to the Association of Ontario Health Centres (AOHC). Unauthorized distribution or use of this document or the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Requests for permission should be addressed to: Association of Ontario Health Centres 970 Lawrence Ave. West, Suite 500 Toronto, Ontario M6A 3B6 Tel: (416)236-2539 Fax: (416)236-0431 Email: [email protected]



The development of the training toolkit on the New Leaders in Developing Collaborative Teams involved many committed and passionate individuals whose support and contribution were vital to the production of this document. These include members of Davies/Ring Consulting, the Reference Group and of AOHC Education and Development Team who brought invaluable expertise to the project. Project Charter Group

AOHC Education and Development Team

Michael Barkley Interim Executive Director Flemingdon Community Health Centre Liben Gebremikael Executive Director TAIBU Community Health Centre Deborah Kanate Manager Dilico Family Health Team Lynne Poff Executive Director North Hastings Family Health Team Simone Thibault Executive Director Centretown Community Health Centre

Project Director: Roohullah Shabon Director, Education and Development Project Manager: Carolyn Poplak Training Manager Team Members: Sophie Bart Centre Development Team Lead Brian Sankarsingh Clinical Management Systems Lead Sandra Wong Administrative Assistant

Davies/Ring Consulting

Lynda Davies Laurienne Ring In addition, we would like to thank all AOHC staff for their support and the representatives who shared their lived examples, experiences, opportunities and challenges that helped bring these training tools to life.


Executive Summary This toolkit is a resource for new leaders (administrative leads, executive directors) and for newly emerging or emerged community-based healthcare organizations that are still in the process of hiring leaders and staff, as well as satellite organizations and teams going through high employee and management turnover. The focus of the toolkit is to provide information and guidance on how to build and maintain an interprofessional primary healthcare team from the start with a united focus on collaboration and team work. This document is divided into five modules identified by the Reference Group as fundamental topics to support new leaders in the building of collaborative teams. These modules include: Leadership; Recruitment, Selection and Hiring Practices; Team Roles and Responsibilities; Communications I: Interpersonal Communications; and Communication II: Meetings. Each module addresses pivotal questions and provides useful and tangible activities that can be utilized by new leaders forming interprofessional teams. The modules and activities can be used individually or as a cohesive whole and each provides a background and a list of references and resources for further research and elaboration. For comments on this document and for workshops on team building and collaborative practice, please contact: The Education and Development Team The Association of Ontario Health Centres 416-236-2539 ext. 230 [email protected]


Introduction The Association of Ontario Health Centres (AOHC) is the policy and advocacy organization for non-profit, community-governed, interprofessional primary healthcare services. AOHC is the public voice of Community Health Centres (CHCs), Aboriginal Health Access Centres (AHACs) and Community Family Health Teams (CFHTs). It believes that effective primary health care should address the social determinants of health, including social inclusion, access to shelter, education, income and employment, security, food and stable eco-systems. The Association engages in research, develops policy and advocates in support of this community-centred primary healthcare model. AOHCs member centres are located throughout Ontario and AOHC works directly with communities that want community-centred primary health care. An initial comprehensive study on interprofessional care in the CHC sector was funded in August 2004 by the Primary Care Health Transition Fund (PCHTF). The study was developed based on the CHC experience and used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect and analyze information that would contribute to improving the effectiveness of primary health care teams. In 2007, AOHC published the research document Building Better Teams: Learning from Ontarios Community Health Centres: A Report of Research Findings based on its innovative research done in the CHC sector. In addition, a toolkit was developed in order to put the research findings into practice. Effective workshops to support and strengthen teamwork among CHCs based on the research findings and subsequent toolkit have since been successfully implemented across the sector. The research and workshops provided on teamwork and collaboration prompted discussion by new AOHC member organizations wishing to form collaborative teams. Some of the new leaders and steering committees of over 21 CHCs, 28 satellites, and many emerging CFHTs requested support on how to start an organization from scratch with strong interprofessional teams made up of members willing to commit and advocate for collaboration. While Building Better Teams provides excellent resources and tools on how to work with already established teams; emerging organizations were looking for support on how to lay the groundwork to develop an interprofessional primary healthcare team practicing within a collaborative framework. Leaders were also requesting guidance on how to implement this framework even before the team (and often before the executive director) is hired. Questions raised by new leaders included: What leadership concepts are relevant to leading collaborative or interprofessional teams? What are the essential knowledge skills and attributes required for a person to work effectively within an interprofessional team? How do I recruit team players? What are the roles and responsibilities of team members? How do we communicate efficiently and effectively from the beginning? A Reference Group made of both new and seasoned leaders representing AOHC members was developed to guide AOHCs Education and Development Team in addressing the issues and concerns faced by new leaders in the building of collaborative teams. We acknowledge that CHCs, CFHTs, and AHACs have similar functioning in terms of team work and team development. And so, this toolkit was developed to support all AOHC member organizations in developing strong teams from the start. Davies/Ring Consulting, part of the collaborative effort behind the Building Better Teams toolkit, co-authored the five modules presented in this toolkit. This toolkit is a starting point for new leaders. A Note on the Terminology: We are seeing a transition in the literature on collaborative care from the use of the term interdisciplinary to interprofessional. Building Better Teams acknowledged the distinct use of the two terms in 2007,1 Interdisciplinary implies a deeper degree of collaboration between team members. It implies an integration of the knowledge and expertise of several disciplines to develop solutions to complex 1Davies Lynda, Ring Laurienne. Building Better Teams: A Toolkit for Strengthening Teamwork in Community Health Centres: Resources, Tips, and Activities you can Use to Enhance Collaboration, June 2007. Toronto: Association of Ontario Health Centres. Pg. 2


problems in a flexible and open-minded way. This type of team shares ownership of common goals and has a shared decision-making process. Members of interdisciplinary teams must open territorial boundaries to provide more flexibility in the sharing of professional responsibilities in order to meet client needs. Interprofessional is the term used more recently and is seen as best reflecting a practice that promotes the active participation of several healthcare disciplines and professions who work collaboratively with patient-centred care as a focal point. When all members coalesce around the client, professional paternalism and traditional methods of intervention can be minimized. It includes healthcare providers learning to work together, sharing in problem solving and decision making to the benefit of patients. The term interprofessional has entered the primary health care field and is now being utilized by organizations to define teams of mixed health-care professionals working collaboratively under a unified vision to help improve the delivery of care and health outcomes. We acknowledge that interprofessional refers to all team players from the management, clinical, administrative, and health promotion fields. According to the Health Force Ontario website,2 interprofessional care is defined as:

The provision of comprehensive health services to patients by multiple health-care professionals who work collaboratively to deliver the best quality of care in every health care setting. Interprofessional care encompasses partnership, collaboration and a multi-disciplinary approach to enhancing care outcomes.

The term interprofessional has been used throughout this document.





A. Background Leadership in organizations is the ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members.3 In community-based primary health care, staff members may be leaders in developing programs that are responsive to community and client needs, lead the implementation of changes that are expected to improve client access or health outcomes. They may provide leadership in group processes such as developing stronger interprofessional teams. This module provides you with ideas for developing your leadership and those in your teams. The questions addressed here include:

What leadership concepts are relevant to leading collaborative or interprofessional teams? What qualities or styles are important for leaders? What skills do team leaders need? What are the particular challenges in leading interprofessional teams?

B. Leadership Concepts Over the last decade, there has been a deepening understanding of leadership concepts applicable to leadership in general and to leading in team and collaborative settings. Leadership is now viewed as actions that integrate personal style factors such as our strengths and self awareness with factors related to the situation or environment we find ourselves in. Whether you have formal or informal leadership responsibilities, you will find leadership concepts that can help you to consider the kind of leader you areor want to become. Past models of leadership often reinforced leadership as a stereotypical set of charismatic, assertive qualities that were innate. We know now that people from a wide variety of backgrounds, disciplines, organizational positions and possessing a variety of personal qualities can learn to be effective leaders. Learning has emerged as an important quality that effective leaders share. Leaders are able to learn their way through new situations.

C. Leadership Styles Leadership style has popularly been viewed as a combination of personal qualities such as charisma combined with a management style such as those classified according to the degree of control or autonomy a manager might display along a continuum of authoritarian, democratic or laissez-faire leadership behaviour.4 Early ideas about leadership examined the transaction between the leader and followers. Three newer approaches to leadership styles incorporate broader, more inclusive ideas about leadership. Those highlighted here are known as transformational, constructivist and situational leadership. i. Transformational leadership Transformational leadership refers to a leadership style that honours human relationships while achieving organizational goals. This style contrasts with transactional leadership, where the human relationship between leader and followers was an instrumental one, important in so far as a relationship

3 McShane, S. (2004) Canadian Organizational Behaviour, p.400 4 Shulman, L. (1993) Interactional Supervision. Washington: National Association of Social Workers Press


helped the leader to motivate organizational members to achieve organizational goals. Many successful leaders have rejected the manipulative tendency within this style and favour a more authentic approach in their interactions. Transformational leadership views the relationship as an important end in itself and acknowledges that leadership is a relationship.5 Transformational leaders intend to facilitate each individuals growth and development and believe that when individuals are working towards worthwhile personal goals in concert with shared team or organizational goals, the congruency unleashes powerful energy that is available to teams and organizations. The transformational leader seeks to inspire others to work towards shared goals using shared values. Values such as respect, personal integrity, credibility and trust are viewed as essential qualities in this style, where the ultimate in disrespect of individuals is to attempt to impose ones will on them without regard for what they want or need and without consulting them. To behave paternalistically toward followerseven for their own goodis to deny them the basic right of individual dignity.6 Transformational leadership with its respect for people and emphasis on values such as trust, authenticity, and credibility often resonates with people in the helping professions due to the congruency with the aims and values of community health initiatives. ii. Constructivist leadership Constructivist leadership emerged from the education sector based on learning theories that acknowledge that everyone - whether student or teacher - learns in context. Learning, including learning as a member of a workplace community, is affected by social factors such as culture, race and economic status. Constructivist leadership views colleagues and practitioners as members of a collective effort, where learning is facilitated by reflecting together and results in shared knowledge. As in transformational leadership, relationship plays a central role in leadership. Leadership is viewed as facilitating transformation through reciprocal, purposeful learning in community.7 The learning community becomes the site for change and growth by creating the connections that form the basis for reflecting on and making sense of who we are and how we work. Relationships may well be the most important factor8 The constructivist leader builds opportunities for the developing shared meaning. iii. Situational Leadership Situational leadership acknowledges that no one personal style is the right style for all situations or contingencies. Situational leadership suggests that rather than rely on personal preference, leaders need to consider situational factors such as the stage of group and team development, experience of the people involved, and novelty of the situation and adjust their personal style to provide the kind of leadership best suited to these contingencies. Leaders are effective when they seek to understand demands and constraints, and they adapt their behaviour accordingly.9 This style is also congruent with team development and the need to draw on the leadership abilities of all team members over time or in different situations. As teams become more experienced they can become more fluid in their leadership roles, selecting the person most suited to the situation to lead on a particular initiative. Opportunities for shared leadership can be personally enriching and a source of developmental opportunities that help to meet members needs for growth and experience.

D. Leadership Qualities Authors Kouzes and Posner have researched leadership behaviour for over twenty-five years and have published their results in one of the leading guides to leadership development, The Leadership Challenge. Their research and recommendations have resonated with many people in the caring professions.

5 Kouzes, J. and Posner, B. (2007) The Leadership Challenge (4th ed.) p. 27. 6 OToole, J. (1996) Leading Change: the Argument of Values-Based Leadership. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 12. 7 Lambert, L.; Walker, D.; Zimmerman, D.; Cooper, J, Dale Lambert, M., Gardner, M., Szabo, M. (2002). The Constructivist Leader (2nd ed.) Teachers College Press, Columbia University. New York, New York. 8 Lambert, Lambert, L.; Walker, D.; Zimmerman, D.; Cooper, J, Dale Lambert, M., Gardner, M., Szabo, M. (2002). The Constructivist Leader (2nd Ed.) Teachers College Press, Columbia University. New York, New York. p. xvii. 9 Yukl, G. (2002) Leadership in Organizations Custom Edition for LT 516. Victoria: Royal Roads University (p. 216)


Their results indicate that the qualities most admired in leaders have remained stable across their years of researching leadership and are validated by the data they have gathered in Canada. i. Characteristics of Admired Leaders10

Using these qualities they have generated five practices of exemplary leadership along with commitments that accompany each practice. 1. Model the Way

This practice is supported by modeling the behaviour you expect to see in others. This includes the practices of clarifying and articulating your own and the organizations values. 2. Inspire a Shared Vision

This practice is supported by developing a positive and compelling vision of the future and inspiring others to work with you towards this vision. 3. Challenge the Process

This practice is supported by facing challenges and leaving the status quo by trying something new, facilitating innovation taking the risk toward growth. 4. Enable Others to Act

This practice is supported by the skills of collaboration and building trusting working relationships with others. 5. Encourage the Heart

This practice is supported by recognizing the difficulties along the way and offering genuine caring and appreciation. An assessment tool adapted to health professionals from the practices they recommend can be accessed from For an assessment from a different perspective, consider the questions in this tool as an example of how you can introduce a constructivist approach to inquiry, shared reflection, knowledge generation and meaning making in building a leadership community.

10 Kouzes, J. and Posner, B. (2007) The Leadership Challenge (4th ed). Jossey- Bass (p. 30)

Honest Forward looking Inspiring Competent Intelligent

Cooperative Courageous Determined Caring Imaginative

Fair-minded Straightforward Broad-minded Supportive Dependable

Mature Ambitious Loyal Self-controlled Independent


ii. Assessment Questions11 1. Do you have opportunities to participate in leadership in this centre (or team)?

2. How skillful do you feel you are in your collaborative work with colleagues? What are your areas of strength? Areas for growth?

3. Do we work together collaboratively? If so, please offer examples.

4. Are the purpose and core values of our centre (team) clear? How would you personally describe them?

5. How do we use data to improve client and community outcomes?

6. How do you think we are doing with regard to client or health outcomes? What added value do we bring to our clients lives?

7. Can you think of an occasion when we have posed our own questions and sought our own answers about practice and effectiveness?

8. Are there other opportunities for reflective practice (such as coaching, writing, and dialogue) that we might look into?

9. What management actions have encouraged and supported the above work? In what ways has the Health centre (team) supported our efforts to build leadership capacity?

10. As you reflect upon these questions, are there other comments that you would like to add? Leadership roles and actions are synthesized from a wide variety of historical and theoretical perspectives in the list below. The following functions can be performed by any member of the organization, but they are especially relevant for the designated leader.12 iii. The Essence of Effective Leadership

1. Help Interpret the Meaning of Events

Helping people to find meaning in complex events is important, especially when the pace of change is accelerating and touches every part of our lives. Effective leaders help people to interpret events, understand why they are relevant, and identify emerging threats and opportunities. 2. Create Alignment on Objectives and Strategies

Effective performance of a collective task requires considerable agreement about what to do and how to do it. Helping to build consensus about these choices is especially important in newly formed groups and in organizations that have lost their way. Effective leaders help to create agreement about objectives, priorities and strategies. 3. Build Task Commitment and Optimism.

The performance of a difficult, stressful task requires commitment and persistence in the face of obstacles and setbacks. Effective leaders increase enthusiasm for the work, commitment to task objectives, and confidence that the effort will be successful. 4. Build Mutual Trust and Cooperation

Effective performance of a collective task requires cooperation and mutual trust, which are more likely when people understand each other, appreciate diversity, and are able to confront and resolve differences in a constructive way. Effective leaders foster mutual respect, trust, and cooperation.

11 Adapted from: Lambert, L. (2003). Leadership Capacity for Lasting School Improvement. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, Virginia. 12 Yukl, G. (2002) Leadership in Organizations Custom Edition for LT 516 Victoria: Royal Roads University. p. 231-232.


5. Strengthen Collective Identity

The effectiveness of a group or organization requires at least a moderate degree of collective identification. In this era of fluid teams, virtual organizations, and joint ventures, boundaries are often unclear and loyalties divided. Effective leaders help to create a unique identity for a group or organization, and they resolve issues of membership in a way that is consistent with this identity. 6. Organize and Coordinate Activities

Successful performance of a complex task requires the capacity to coordinate many different but interrelated activities in a way that makes efficient use of people and resources. Effective leaders help people get organized to perform collective activities efficiently, and they help to coordinate these activities as they occur. 7. Encourage and Facilitate Collective Learning

In a highly competitive and turbulent environment, continuous learning and innovation are essential for the survival and prosperity of an organization. Members must collectively learn better ways to work together toward common objectives. Effective leaders encourage and facilitate collective learning and innovation. 8. Obtain Necessary Resources and Support

For most groups and organizations, survival and prosperity require favourable exchanges with external parties. Resources, approvals, assistance, and political support must be obtained from superiors and people outside of the unit. Effective leaders promote and defend unit interests and help to obtain necessary resources and support. 9. Develop and Empower People

To be successful, a group or organization usually needs active involvement by members in solving problems, making decisions, and implementing changes. Appropriate skills must be developed to prepare people for leadership roles, new responsibilities, and major change. Effective leaders help people develop essential skills and empower people to become change agents and leaders themselves. 10. Promote Social Justice and Morality

Member satisfaction and commitment are increased by a climate of fairness, compassion, and social responsibility. To maintain such a climate requires active efforts to protect individual rights, encourage social responsibility, and oppose unethical practices. Effective leaders set an example of moral behaviour, and they take necessary actions to promote social justice. With the emphasis on relationships in leadership, there has been attention to the competencies associated with emotional intelligence as important for effective leadership. The following tool was designed to assess the emotional dimensions of leadership.


iv. Leadership Skills: Rate Yourself13

The best leaders have strengths in at least a half-dozen key emotional intelligence competencies out of 20 or so. To see how you rate on some of these abilities, asses how the statements below apply to you. Although getting a precise profile of your strengths and weaknesses requires a more rigorous assessment, this quiz can give you a rough rating, Most important, we hope it will get you thinking about how well you use leadership skillsand how you might get better at it. Answer (put a check) Seldom to those statement with which you Seldom Agree Occasionally with which you Occasionally Agree, Often with which you Often Agree and Frequently with which you Frequently Agree.

Statement Seldom Occasionally Often Frequently 1. I am aware of what I am feeling

2. I know my own strengths and weaknesses.

3. I deal calmly with stress. 4. I believe the future will be better than the past.

5. I deal with changes easily. 6. I set measurable goals when I have a project.

7. Others say I understand and am sensitive to them.

8. Others say I resolve conflicts. 9. Others say I build and maintain relationships.

10. Others say I inspire them. 11. Others say I am a team player.

12. Others say I helped to develop their abilities.

Total the number of checks in each column:

Multiply that number by X1 X2 X3 X4 Total the score for each column: Add the 4 column scores to get your TOTAL Score:

Scoring: 36+ Suggests you are using key leadership skills wellbut ask a co-worker or partner for their opinions to be more certain.

30-35 Suggests some strengths and also some underused leadership abilities.

29 or less Suggests unused leadership abilities and room for improvement.

13 From Goleman, D, (2002) cited in Grossman, S. & Valiga, T. (2005) The New Leadership Challenge: Creating the Future of Nursing, (2nd ed) Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.


E. Challenges in Leading Teams This section reviews some of the most frequently mentioned challenges found in interprofessional primary health care practice. These include maintaining a focus on both the task and interpersonal aspects of team work. Another ongoing challenge for leadership within primary health care teams include frictions associated with various aspects of power along with the need for frequent change and adaptation. The module concludes with recommended practices for leadership development. As teams develop trust and confidence, leadership within teams often becomes more shared, with less reliance on the formal leader. This can provide great opportunities for enrichment for all team members and can set the tone for collaborative leadership that utilizes the skills of all members. There are also challenges for team leadership. Recent research in Ontario community health centres identified five leadership challenges to primary heath care team work. These were unfair treatment of certain staff or projects; closed or unapproachable leadership style; inappropriate workload assignment; lack of understanding of the CHC philosophy; and ineffective conflict management.14 Power imbalances and role confusion often emerge in interprofessional teams. In the module on team work, it was noted that role confusion occurs within teams due to factors such as the overlapping roles of the professions and the sometimes contradictory messages embedded in policy positions. While it is promoted as a best practice to develop leaders from within through the use of learning opportunities and developmental assignments, a potential pitfall is a further contribution role confusion or perceptions of lack of fairness in employment relations. This was expressed in recent research in the community health sector where an example was provided where a Nurse Practitioner in a peer leader capacity may need to give direction to a Family Physician one hour and consult with the physician the next hour about a patient.15 In order to lead teams, effective team leaders are aware of the task, human relations needs and the situational setting for the team. The following checklist incorporates the leadership dimensions of task focus, awareness of interpersonal factors and situational elements for the leader to consider.

14 Bickford, J., Belle Brown, J., Moss, K., and Gillis, L. Challenges to Team Work in CHCs in Building Better Teams: Learning from Ontario Community Health Centres: A Report of Research Findings, June 2007. Toronto: Association of Ontario Health Centres. p. 109. 15 Davidson, B. Leadership and Interdisciplinary Teams: Ontario Community Health Centres in Transition, in Building Better Teams: Learning from Ontario Community Health Centres A Report of Research Findings, June 2007.(p. 206)


i. Effective Leader Checklist16 Please read the statements below. Circle the number that most accurately describes your response to the statement. Use the following key to respond to each statement.

1. Disagree strongly 2. Disagree to some extent 3. Agree to some extent 4. Agree strongly

1. I avoid taking leadership assignments for which I do not have sufficient task-related knowledge. 1 2 3 4 2. I avoid taking leadership assignments for which I do not have the appropriate leadership style. 1 2 3 4 3. I am motivated to act as the leader for this team. 1 2 3 4 4. I am able to adjust my leadership style to meet the developmental needs of the team at a particular point in time. 1 2 3 4 5. With a team in the early stages of development, I am a directive and confident leader. 1 2 3 4 6. I come to early team meetings with a clear, written agenda. 1 2 3 4 7. At early meetings, I am able to state the teams goals clearly. 1 2 3 4 8. Especially at the beginning, I run meetings efficiently. 1 2 3 4 9. Early on, I am comfortable assigning tasks to individuals as necessary. 1 2 3 4 10. Early on, I am comfortable making decisions as needed. 1 2 3 4 11. In early meetings, I work to reduce member anxiety, fears of rejection, and concerns about safety. 1 2 3 4 12. I treat members sensitively and fairly. 1 2 3 4 13. I address members by name and make sure members know each others names from the beginning. 1 2 3 4 14. I try not to put individuals on the spot, especially in early meetings. 1 2 3 4 15. I encourage members to participate, but I dont demand participation. 1 2 3 4

16 Whelan, S. (1999) Creating Effective Teams A Guide for Members and Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. p. 89-92.


16. I give lots of positive feedback to the team and to individuals. 1 2 3 4 17. I facilitate open discussion of team goals, values and tasks. 1 2 3 4 18. I encourage the expression of different opinions. 1 2 3 4 19. When members are having difficulty expressing different opinions, I use methods to elicit opinions anonymously. 1 2 3 4 20. I facilitate member feelings of competence by providing supervision, training, and education in task-related activities when necessary. 1 2 3 4 21. I facilitate member feelings of competence by providing supervision, training, and education in group participation skills when necessary. 1 2 3 4 22. I set high performance standards from the beginning. 1 2 3 4 23. I review quality expectations early and often. 1 2 3 4 24. I review standards for member and leader participation as well. 1 2 3 4 25. Initially, I negotiate with other groups and external individuals for needed resources. 1 2 3 4 26. Initially, I buffer the team from excessive external demands. 1 2 3 4 27. Initially, I scan the rest of the organization to collect information that might be useful to the team. 1 2 3 4 28. Initially, I report team progress to others to ensure that the rest of the organization has a positive image of the team. 1 2 3 4 29. When members begin to demand more participation in running the team, I slowly begin to empower them to take it. 1 2 3 4 30. I expect challenges to my authority and see them as a sign of team progress. 1 2 3 4 31. I try not to take attacks and challenges personally. 1 2 3 4 32. I facilitate open discussion and resolution of conflicts that emerge. 1 2 3 4


33. I encourage the use of effective conflict resolution strategies. 1 2 3 4 34. As the team matures, I increasingly involve members in the leadership function of the team. 1 2 3 4 35. I encourage and support member efforts to share in the leadership function of the team. 1 2 3 4 36. I encourage the team to make any necessary changes in the teams structure that will facilitate team productivity. 1 2 3 4 37. When a team is fully functional, I act more as an expert member than as a leader. 1 2 3 4 38. I continue to monitor team processes, especially for signs of regression. 1 2 3 4 39. I ask for organizational support reviews on a regular basis. 1 2 3 4 40. Regardless of the stage of the team, I follow guidelines for effective team membership as well as the guidelines for effective leadership. 1 2 3 4 Minimum Score: 40

Maximum Score: 160

My Score: ______


F. Power in Teams and Organizations From an organizational perspective, power is the capacity of a person, team or organization to influence others.17 Power in teams is composed of several factors that include the degree to which the team members are dependent on one another to complete their work, how important the person or team is to completing needed tasks and the sources of power available to the team. In health-care teams we often see the manifestation of power in the professional roles of team members, where team members perceive that in practice, their profession had less power and therefore a weaker voice in the organization.18 Organizational literature considers five sources of power. Some power derives from the organizational position of the person or team. Examples of this type of power are classified as legitimate, reward and coercive power. The power from these sources flows from the role or position, regardless of who is the role. Legitimate power flows in an organization from the roles people fulfill- that according to documents such as job descriptions, the person is perceived through mutual agreement to have power to request actions from other members of the team. Reward power derives from ability to allocate rewards within the organization. This includes obvious rewards such as pay as well as promotion, development opportunities, assignments and time off. Coercive power is the ability to be punitive in the organizational setting through such actions as the ability to reprimand, discipline or terminate the employment of someone. It is also possible for teams to apply coercive power, for example by using peer pressure to enforce conformity. In addition to the power inherent in these organizational or professional roles, people or teams can acquire power through personal expertise or qualities. Expert power is found when a person or team builds up valuable knowledge and is then in a position to influence others. Referent power comes from the high regard held by the person or team which others can then identify with. Referent power could flow from having well developed interpersonal skills or being viewed as trustworthy. Power in organizations is also influenced by factors known as the contingencies of power. Power may accrue to those roles or people where they cannot be substituted, are central to accomplishing the tasks, have a high level of discretion about what actions to take or are highly visible. Tensions regarding power in health care may stem from contingencies of power that flow from the high regard health services providers are held in by the community as well as the centrality and non-substitutability of professions roles. There is also a strong historical context to these tensions, where gender and social class issues have been factors in the friction and conflict that has existed between professions until present day.19 This activity provides an opportunity for you to examine your relationship to power. As a team, you can reflect on your past experiences with power.

17 McShane. p. 344 18 Bickford, J., Belle Brown, J., Moss, K., and Gillis, L. Challenges to Team Work in CHCs in Building Better Teams: Learning from Ontario Community Health Centres A Report of Research Findings, June 2007.(p. 109) 19 Hall, P. Interprofessional teamwork: Professional Cultures as Barriers in Journal of Interprofessional Care (May 2005) Supplement 1: p. 188-196.


i. Past Experiences with Power20 Objectives: 1. To revisit experiences with power 2. To distinguish elements that contribute to positive or negative feelings about power 3. To create an initial foundation for further discussions of the concept of power Materials needed:

Chart paper Felt pens

Individually write down one example of a time when you observed or experienced power being used in a positive or productive manner. You may have observed this in person, on television, from afar, or actually used your power in this way. After you note this experience, write down what it was about this experience that caused you to remember it as productive and positive? Then, write down one example of a time when you observed or experienced power being used in a negative, disrespectful or destructive way. Again, this may have been power observed or experienced in person, on television or from afar. Note what caused you to remember this experience as negative. In your [small] group, share the details and reactions to both of these experiences. On one piece of chart paper, collate the elements that comprised positive experiences. On another piece of chart paper, collate the elements that comprised negative experiences. Each group will share its thoughts and listings with the whole group and post. As a whole group, discuss whether the positive or negative experiences have influenced your current views of power and why that might be.

20 McKinley, L. and Ross, H. (2008) You and Others Reflective Practice for Group Effectiveness in Human Services. Toronto: Pearson Education.


G. Leading Change Leading change is frequently a challenge for leaders. If you are the leader of a new initiative, health centre or family health team you are likely leading a change of some kind. The need to respond to community needs and a rapidly changing policy environment as well as the tremendous challenges to the health-care system means that change may be occurring at many levels within an organization, often simultaneously. To help you think about the kind of change you are leading and the supports that could be used by team members, you can consider whether the change is developmental, transitional or transformational.21 Developmental change aims to change an existing situation or process through enhancement. This type of change may seek to improve communication, team work or implement an improvement such as a new process or technique. In developmental change the goal or desired outcome of the change is clear. The leader supports developmental change by providing information that shares the rationale for the needed change and by assisting with the setting of new goals that stretch team members while also ensuring that the resources and support for meeting the new goal are in place. Transitional change is characterized by the need to replace what is with something entirely different.22 This order of change requires leaders to recognize that something completely different is required in order to respond to an opportunity or challenge. Examples of transitional change include the introduction of new programs or implementing new technologies that are similar to existing ones. Transitional change may not require high levels of change from the people involved or within the workplace culture. The leader uses clear communication, participation of the affected people and their control over the implementation to achieve the desired new state. The leader supports transitional change by identifying the differences between the existing and desired outcomes. The leader can facilitate the identification of anything that can be brought forward to serve the new situation, what will have to be left behind or is no longer needed, and what new components will be created to complete the new state. This type of change is often implemented with a parallel structure: one to keep existing operations going and another to manage the stages of planning and implementing the required changes. The third type of change is transformational change. This type of change is marked by high levels of uncertainty and complexity that will require attitude, behaviour and cultural changes from all involved. The final result or outcome may not be known and the scope of this change [is] so significant that it requires the organizations culture and peoples behaviour and mindsets to shift fundamentally in order to implement the changes successfully and succeed in the new state.23 In transformational change, the result emerges from a chaotic or unstable state. The leaders role in transformational change is to monitor all sources of feedback to continually assess the process and direction of the change and adjust the course to continue in the desired direction. The leader becomes an adept learner to interpret and act on the feedback and facilitates learning in others.

21 Anderson, D and Ackerman Anderson, L. (2001) Beyond Change Management: Advanced Strategies for Todays Transformational Leaders. Jossey/Bass Pfeiffer. 22 Anderson and Ackerman Anderson, p. 35. 23 Anderson and Ackerman Anderson, p. 39.


i. Determining the type of change required24 (Adapted from Anderson and Ackerman Anderson)

Instructions: determine the primary type of change you are leading by answering the litmus test questions listed below. If you answer yes to two or more questions for one type of change, then that is the primary type of change you are facing. Remember to think of the overall change that is occurring, not the pieces within it. In most cases, all three types of change are occurring, but only one is primary. Developmental Change Questions

1. Does your change effort primarily require an improvement of your existing way of operating, rather than a radical change to it?

2. Will skill or knowledge training, performance improvement strategies, and communications suffice to carry out this change?

3. Does your current culture and mindset support the needs of this change? Transitional Change Questions

1. Does your change effort require you to dismantle your existing way of operating and replace it with something known but different?

2. At the beginning of your change effort, were you able to design a definitive picture of the new state?

3. Is it realistic to expect this change to occur over a pre-determined timetable? Transformational Change Questions

1. Does your organization need to begin its change process before the destination is fully known and defined?

2. Is the scope of the change so significant that it requires the organizations culture and peoples behaviour and mindsets to shift fundamentally in order to implement the changes successfully and achieve the new state?

3. Does the change require the organizations structure, operations, products, services or technology to change radically to meet the needs of clients, the community and policy environment? Conclusions

1. Which of the three types of change is the primary type required?

2. Which of the other two types of change will also be needed to support this primary type? In what ways?

3. What leadership skills and strategies will you need to draw upon to lead this change?

24 Anderson, D and Ackerman Anderson, L. (2001) Beyond Change Management: Advanced Strategies for Todays Transformational Leaders. Jossey/Bass Pfeiffer. p. 48 & 49.


H. Best Practices in Leadership Development25 As a leader, you will also be interested in supporting the leadership development of others. You may have responsibilities for contributing to a succession plan or may want to foster the ongoing development of team members. Ideally, developing leaders within your centre will use a variety of processes. The practices noted here will help you to plan leadership development for one person or to create a leadership development program. A comprehensive approach to leadership development would include:

Technical knowledge of the field of practice Development of:

o Interpersonal judgement o Self awareness o Learning ability, to engage in problem solving

Developmental experiences

A strong program acknowledges that much learning of leadership and management skill occurs through experience. Developmental experiences should play a central role in your program. These experiences would be supported by including elements of assessment, challenge and support. Feedback, training and specific job assignments can also be incorporated. Coaching and mentoring relationships also play an important role in supporting leadership development.

I. Resources

Kouzes and Posner have recently published the 4th edition of The Leadership Challenge. More information about their work, research methodology and companion publications can be found through their website. A great place to start is with their Recommended Reading page at: The online assessment tool for nurses (suitable for other healthcare professionals) based on their practices of exemplary leadership is available at: Other resources of interest include:

Nursing Leadership Network of Ontario:

Leadership development for physicians:

Collaborative leadership in public health: For an excellent summary of leadership theories and contemporary developments, see Chapter One in Carroll, P. (2006) Nursing Leadership and Management: A Practical Guide. New York: Thomson Delma Learning.

25 Groysberg, B. and Cowen, A. (2006) Developing Leaders. 9-407-015. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.


J. References Anderson, D. and Ackerman Anderson, L. (2001) Beyond Change Management: Advanced Strategies for

Todays Transformational Leaders. Jossey-Bass Pfeiffer. Bickford, J., Belle Brown, J., Moss, K., and Gillis, L. Challenges to Team Work in CHCs in Building Better

Teams: Learning from Ontario Community Health Centres: A Report of Research Findings, June 2007. Toronto: Association of Ontario Health Centres.

Davidson, B. Leadership and Interdisciplinary Teams: Ontario Community Health Centres in Transition,

p. 206 in Building Better Teams: Learning from Ontario Community Health Centres: A Report of Research Findings, June 2007. Toronto: Association of Ontario Health Centres.

Goleman, D, (2002) cited in Grossman, S. & Valiga, T. (2005) The New Leadership Challenge: Creating

the Future of Nursing, (2nd ed) Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. Groysberg, B. and Cowen, A. (2006) Developing Leaders. 9-407-015. Boston: Harvard Business School

Publishing. Hall, P. Interprofessional Teamwork: Professional Cultures as Barriers in Journal of Interprofessional

Care (May 2005) Supplement 1: p. 188-196. Kouzes, J. and Posner, B. (2007) The Leadership Challenge (4th ed). Jossey-Bass p. 30. Lambert, L.; Walker, D.; Zimmerman, D.; Cooper, J, Dale Lambert, M., Gardner, M., Szabo, M. (2002).

The Constructivist Leader (2nd ed.) Teachers College Press, Columbia University. New York, New York.

Lambert, L. (2003). Leadership Capacity for Lasting School Improvement. Association for Supervision

and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, Virginia. p. 30. McKinley, L. and Ross, H. (2008) You and Others Reflective Practice for Group Effectiveness in Human

Services. Toronto: Pearson Education. p. 118. McShane, S. (2004) Canadian Organizational Behaviour (5th ed). McGraw-Hill Ryerson. p. 400. OToole, J. (1996) Leading Change: The Argument for Values-Based Leadership. New York: Ballantine

Books. p. 12. Shulman, L. (1993) Interactional Supervision. Washington: National Association of Social Workers

Press. p.228-229. Whelan, S. (1999) Creating Effective Teams A Guide for Members and Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Sage

Publications. p. 89-92. Yukl, G. (2002) Leadership in Organizations Custom Edition for LT 516. Victoria: Royal Roads

University. p. 216; p. 231-232.



Recruitment, Selection and Hiring Practices

A. Background

One of the foundations of Primary Health Care Reform in Canada has been a focus on teams of professionals as the basis of care provision. A recent federal policy paper has suggested that,

A healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care, enhance patient safety and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professions. (CHSRF, 2006)

There is mounting evidence (Health Force Ontario, 2007) in Canada that an interprofessional care environment may offer multiple benefits including:

increased access to health care improved outcome for people with chronic diseases less tension and conflict among caregivers better use of clinical resources easier recruitment of care givers lower rates of staff turnover

Given the move toward interprofessional teams across the health-care system, education initiatives regarding interprofessional care are being undertaken within Canadian Colleges and Universities that provide education for healthcare professionals.(DArmour, &. Oandasan, 2005). Future health-care professionals will be required to acquire the knowledge, skills and attributes needed for interprofessional care. It has been recommended that a set of competencies be developed to guide the education of health-care professionals. It is hoped that the development of a common competency framework will provide guidance regarding the knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes required to practice interprofessional care. (Health Force Ontario, 2007) In the mean time, new primary health-care teams are forming and health-care professionals are being hired to work within them. This module is intended to be of assistance to those leaders of primary health care organizations and/or teams who have the responsibility for recruiting, selecting and hiring staff members who will contribute actively to the development of effective primary health care teams. The research on interprofessional teams conducted by the Association of Ontario Health Centres found that hiring for fit was a good practice within community health centres: the findings emphasized the importance of making hiring decisions based on the philosophy of the CHC in order to insure a fit with its values (Laiken et al, 2007. p. 127) The questions that will be addressed in this module:

What are the essential knowledge skills and attributes required for a person to work effective within an interprofessional team?

How might a position/job advertisement be written to attract a pool of candidates with the knowledge skills and attributes required?

What questions might be asked in an interview that would assist the interview panel to assess the candidates knowledge skills and attributes?

What questions would assist a candidate with the necessary knowledge, skills and attributes to demonstrate those?


What types of people might the hiring committee ask the candidates permission to speak to as references? What questions might the references be asked?

What language in an employment letter might reinforce the importance of interprofessional care?

The module is not intended to be an extensive resource on general standards of practice for hiring personnel nor the legal and regulatory aspects of hiring. Those who are seeking general hiring information are directed, as a starting place to the resource section of this module.

B. Hiring Professionals with The Essential Knowledge, Skills and Attributes

There is a growing amount of evidence that there are several essential qualities required for people to participate effectively in interprofessional teams. A recent review of empirical studies (San Martin Rodriguez et al, 2005) concludes, that in order for a healthcare professional to work effectively as member of an interprofessional team she/he would need to:

Be willing to commit to a collaborative process Be able to establish relationships built on trust Demonstrate skills in interpersonal communication Have developed respect and recognition for the contributions of other professions to the team

While a set of competencies has yet to be developed at the policy and post secondary education levels, there has been a fair amount of work completed, much of it in Canada, to identify and articulate the essential competencies. The next section outlines one set of suggestions that have been made regarding the competencies necessary for collaboration. i. Collaborative competencies26

Describe ones role and responsibilities clearly to other professions. Recognize and observe the constraints of ones role, responsibilities, competence, yet perceive needs in a wider framework. Recognize and respect the roles, responsibilities and competences of other professions in relation to ones own. Work with other professions to effect change and resolve conflict in the provision of care and treatment. Work with others to assess plan, provide and review care for individual clients. Tolerate differences, misunderstandings and short comings in other professions. Facilitate interprofessional case conferences and team meetings. Enter into interdependent relationships with other professions. Given the importance now placed on interprofessional care and the necessary knowledge, skills and attributes, an emphasis on these issues during the hiring process is well warranted. Even before the interviews, some attention to the position/job advertisement can assist your organization in attracting the most appropriate pool of candidates. An example of an advertisement that contains references to interprofessional care is in the next section.27

26 Oandasan, Ivy & Reeves, Scott. (2005) 27 This position advertisement was developed following a review of several position advertisements for primary health care teams posted www.charityvillage. in July /Aug 2008.


ii. Job Posting: Registered Nurse The your organization is an interprofessional CFHT,CHC,AHAC providing access to primary health care to a diverse group of clients in an urban area that has been chronically under served. We have an opening for a Registered Nurse (1.0 FTE 12 month contract). The Registered Nurse (RN) reports to the Executive Director. Responsibilities:

Delivering comprehensive nursing care in a primary care family practice setting as established by the standards of nursing practice of the College of Nurses of Ontario.

Provides safe and competent care through the application of nursing knowledge, the technical aspects of professional practice and the demonstration of compassion, professionalism and critical thinking.

Responsible to provide a variety of modalities of client care (telephone assessment, home visits, group education sessions, well baby clinics, geriatric assessments, diabetic teaching, pregnancy planning and contraception, immunization, counseling and program development)

Responsible for assessment, nursing diagnosis, integrated care plan development, implementation and evaluation of nursing care.

Responsible for the provision of primary health care services through effective collaboration with the other members of the health care team.


Registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario.

Bachelors Degree in Nursing required.

Current Basic Cardiac Life Support (BCLS) and Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) certificate required. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification will be considered an asset.

Experience working in a family practice or primary health care setting required.

Minimum five (5) years experience in utilizing the nursing process in planning, implementing and evaluating patient care.

Experience in oral/point of care anticoagulation, chronic disease management, telephone triage and clinical nursing skills required.


Good attendance and work record.

Knowledge and proficiency in current, evidenced-based methods and practices of primary care delivery, with an emphasis on health promotion and risk reduction.

Superior leadership, organization, research, evaluation, time management and interpersonal skills.

Willingness to commit to a collaborative model for the provision of primary health care services that recognizes and values the contributions of all members of the interprofessional team.

Proficiency in the use of the computer hardware and software, particularly in Microsoft Word, Excel and Outlook, knowledge of electronic medical record Excellent verbal and written communication skills.

Experience in the development of effective linkages with other health, social service and education agencies as appropriate.

Experience in working with a diverse population.


Excellent client assessment skills.

Ability to function in a multi-tasking fast paced environment.

Able to work independently and as an effective member of an interprofessional team

Once the applications have been received and a short listing process undertaken, the interviews will take place. Asking questions of candidates that allow the candidate to present their skills and knowledge and the interview panel to assess the candidates knowledge and skills and fit is as much an art as a science. The questions provided here are meant to be examples that could be used. The questions can be modified, edited, made simpler or more complex based on your particular context and needs. It is an effective method to have the hiring committee, which ideally will be made up of a variety of health professionals (Laiken et al, 2007), spend some time discussing these questions and deciding together what questions to ask in the interview. You will be able to ask only one or perhaps two questions regarding the persons skill in collaboration, so the questions need to be the best ones for your setting and context. This type of discussion and group decision making models the collaborative approach to decision making that is most appropriate to fostering effective team work.


iii. Suggestions for Interview Questions28 Questions What to look for Can you tell us about a time when you were able to gain commitment from others and motivate them to work together to achieve goals

Look for experience working with groups or teams and an awareness of the contribution of everyone to the teams work. Look for awareness that people need to be involved in decisions and processes that will affect them.

How have you helped/participated in building rapport in teams?

Look for insight and/or understanding from the person as to how she or he has personally contributed to effective team work. (perhaps through practices such interpersonal communication, valuing the contribution of others, helping to resolve conflicts)

As the (insert job title) you will need to take a lead role in (insert key job expectation). How would you see yourself working and relating to other professions, disciplines, teams and managers within the organization? What strategies would you use to move forward to meet these expectations?

Look for ability to see both task/activities and processes that would need to take place. Look for awareness of interdependence of people in the organization, communication, trust building, involving all those affected in decision making.

Two staff people have indicated to you that they believe there are some positions within the team that are not as respected or valued as others. What strategies might you use to address these concerns?

Look for understanding of the importance of valuing the diversity of knowledge, skills and experience in an interprofessional team Look for problem solving and the importance of involving the whole team in resolving the concerns.

What has been your experience working as a member of a team? Based on these experiences, what do you think are the key elements of successful teamwork? What are the challenges to effective teamwork?

Look for awareness and/or experience in developing trusting relationships, establishing good interpersonal communication skills, and a willingness to address conflict. Look for knowledge that effective teams need a shared vision, a common purpose, open communication, conflict resolution mechanisms and individual as well as team accountability.

Can you give an example of how you worked to resolve a dispute with another provider regarding the care of a client?

Look for collaborative communication and conflict styles, rather than a competitive/win lose style; look for an

28 Thanks to Ms. Lynne Raskin of South Riverdale Community Health Centre Health Centre and Dr. James Read of the Sherbourne Family Health Team for providing examples of the questions they have used in hiring processes. Their questions formed a starting point for this guide.


appreciation of the others role and accountabilities, look for democratic rather than hierarchical problem solving attitudes and skills.

All organizations have a unique culture. What strategies have you used in the past as a newcomer to an organization to work through building trust, developing relationships and to work effectively within a team?

Look for an appreciation that trusting relationships take time and require mutual respect of each professions role. Good communication skills and demonstrating competence in ones own profession also enhance trust.

Have the candidate review the vision statement for you centre and ask them how they would work within the team the centre to make the vision a reality

Look for the individual alignment with organization vision and for the knowledge that it takes a team working together to achieve a vision with all members contributions valued

iv. Checking References After the interview you may have 2 or more candidates that you are seriously interested in for the position. You will want to speak to people who have worked with the candidate. A now common place method is to speak to a person who has supervised the work on the candidate, a second person who has worked as a peer/colleague and a third person who has reported to the candidate. This strategy provides you with information about the candidate from a variety of perspectives. Questions regarding the candidates suitability for working within an interprofessional teams are offered in Figure 4. These are suggestions only and can be adapted according to your particular needs. Questions for References

What were the persons strengths in working with others? Please give examples if possible.

What was the persons contribution to effective working relationships among his/her peers and colleagues? Please provide an example

What challenges did the person experience in working with others? Please give examples if possible.

Was the person able to learn from the experience and improve their relationships?

How did this person go about promoting collaborative working relationships with others? v. Letter of employment Inserting language regarding the importance of collaborative practice into a letter of employment will convey the high value placed on collaboration at your Centre. This wording is an example that could be used or adapted.29

In addition to the duties and responsibilities outlined in the job description, it is understood that a further job duty is the need for you to work effectively within the strong team context that exists at (insert centre name). The expectation that you will work professionally, collaboratively and respectfully with all of your colleagues in the Centre is as important as your other duties and responsibilities.

vi. Job Descriptions 29 Thanks to Ms. Lynne Raskin of South Riverdale CHC for providing this wording


Embedding the concepts of interprofessional care within your organizational culture can be further assisted by ensuring that job descriptions of all members of your team contain references to the aspects of the persons job that relate to collaborative care. There are now over 20 regulated health professions in Ontario. There are also a variety of unregulated workers such as community mental health workers, grief counselors, unregulated social workers, peer counselors, health promoters, community developers, traditional healers and elders that provide needed and often culturally relevant services in their communities (Purden, 2005). And in all primary health care settings, administrative, information technology and secretarial staff are key to well functioning teams. Whatever the positions within your team, which may change over time depending on the populations you are serving and the needs you identify, every job description can contain references to interprofessional care. This is a strategy that can remind each team member that she/he is responsible to participate in establishing and maintaining collaborative relationships with others. AOHC is not advocating or suggesting a particular type or model for job descriptions. The following suggestions could be easily added to the job descriptions you are currently using. Position Responsibilities As a member of the interprofessional team:

Communicates effectively with other members of the team

Collaborates with others through providing appropriate support and consultation to other primary care staff and participates in chart reviews and collaborative case conferences

Recognizes and respects the value of each member of the team. Qualifications

Knowledge, skills and aptitudes necessary to establish and maintain collaborative relationships with other members of the interprofessional team

vii. Summary Checklist on Hiring The following exercise provides a checklist that captures the ideas presented in this module. The checklist can provide a method for ensuring each of the steps we have suggested has been incorporated into your processes.

Hiring Checklist

Topic Yes No Have we included references to experience with interprofessional collaboration in our recruitment material?

Have we incorporated questions about interprofessional collaboration in our interview questions?

Have we included questions about interprofessional competencies in our reference checks??

Have we included competences associated with interprofessional care in our position/job descriptions?

Have we mentioned the responsibility to function effectively as a team member in our contract letter?

viii. Thinking ahead to Performance Appraisals


Each person hired to work within a primary health care interprofessional team will eventually have regular performance appraisals. New employees usually have a probationary period of employment as part of their employment contracts. When team members are aware that one aspect of their performance appraisal will be a focus on their contribution to establishing and maintaining effective collaboration within their team, the overall effect will be to increase the knowledge, skills and aptitudes within the entire team. It is beyond the scope of the module to suggest a particular method and forms for performance appraisals. The intention behind the example30 provided is to assist leaders and teams to consider the ways in which the knowledge, skills and aptitudes for interprofessional care discussed throughout the module might be incorporated into your performance appraisals. The suggestions provided can be modified and edited to fit your particular context.

Performance Appraisal

Instructions: Each person who is contributing to the performance appraisal will rate the employee on the following dimensions using the rating guide provided at the end. Interprofessional Team Skills

1. Communicates knowledge and information to other team members

2. Participates in establishing effective team meetings, case conferences

3. Demonstrates accountability to the team by contributing to the team meeting its objectives and by supporting team decisions

4. Participates in individual work planning as well as team work planning

5. Assists other team members with their growth and development, answers questions and pitches in to complete the teams work.

6. Works with team members to resolve conflicts

7. Demonstrates respect for the diverse contributions of team members and their roles

8. Accepts constructive feedback and acts on suggestions for improvement

9. Arrives for work and meetings on time

10. Reinforces and acknowledges positive behaviour, performance and successes of other team members


Excellent: Role model or leader in demonstrating this behaviour/action

Good: Behaviour/action demonstrated consistently and effectively

Fair: Developmental Opportunity. Behaviour/action demonstrated with room for improvement. Specific actions to help employee improve their performance will be developed.

Poor Development is Critical. Behaviour/action is rarely/never/poorly demonstrated; significantly impacts performance. Specific actions to help the employees improve their performance will be developed

N/A not applicable

Dont Know I dont have enough knowledge to indicate whether behaviour/action is demonstrated

C. Resources

30 Thanks to Ms. Simone Thibault, Executive Director of Centretown Community Health Centre for providing their performance appraisal tools which were adapted for this module.


Community Health Inc. or COHI This organization owns and administers the quality improvement and accreditation program called Building Healthier Organizations. (BHO) The website has a section entitled BHO Resource Library that contains many resources on hiring and related topics. Under the heading 1.6 Creating a Healthy Workplace, there are resources on Anti-discrimination in hiring, reference checking, checking of professional registrations, advertising, recruitment, interviewing, selection, examples of performance appraisal tools and a variety of other HR tools and examples. Charity Village This website,, which is used by many non profit groups to advertise positions also contains a Resource and Library section. In the Resource and Library section there is a section entitled Management Resources that contains several resources specific to hiring such as establishing selection criteria, selecting interview questions, candidate evaluation and human rights legislation in Canada. Other sections of the site contain links to nonprofit management resources and are worth a browse. Ontario Ministry of Labour This website contains detailed information on the Employment Standards Act (2000) which enforces the minimum standards that employers and employee must follow.

D. References Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (2006) Team Work in Health Care: Promoting effective

team work in health care in Canada: Policy Syntheses and Recommendations. http:/ Retrieved June 23, 2006

DArmour, D. Oandasan, I. (2005) Interprofessionality as the field of interprofessional practice and

interprofessional education: An emerging concept. Journal of Interprofessional Care Supplement 1 May: p 8-20

Health Force Ontario (2007) Interprofessional Care: A Blueprint for Action in Ontario. http/:www Retrieved May 25, 2008 Laiken, M. E., Chatalalsingh, C., Brown, J.B., Bickford, J., Moss, K. & Gillis, L. (2006). Organizational

Support for Interprofessional Teams in Primary Health Care in Building Better Teams: Learning from Community Health Centres.(2007) Association of Ontario Health Centres. Etobicoke.

Oandasan, Ivy & Reeves, Scott. (2005) Key elements for Interprofessional education. Part 1 The

learner, the educator and the learning context. Journal of Interprofessional Care, Supplement 1. May: p 21-35

San Martin-Rodriguez, L.S., Beaulieu, M. D., DAmour, D., & Ferrada-Videla, M. (2005) The

determinants of successful collaboration: A review of theoretical and empirical studies. Journal of Interprofessional Care Supplement 1 May, p132-147



Team Roles and Responsibilities

A. Background Members of primary health-care teams are continuing to develop their expertise in team work and various applications of interprofessional collaboration. Initiatives in health sciences education and health-care policy now emphasize the need for team work to address the needs of clients and communities; initiatives that link interprofessional care, collaboration and the ability to work as an effective team member are well underway. This interest in team work builds on the history of working in interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary teams and addresses some of the current challenges to providing primary health care. The advantages associated with effective team work in heath care include improvements in patient care, enhanced patient safety, and a way to reduce some of the challenges in workload that lead to burnout.31 In community-based primary care, benefits have included coordinated and comprehensive client care; appropriate internal client referrals; the sharing and application of professional skills and knowledge; and staff being aware of, contributing to and directing their client to the various CHC programs available in the community.32 As teams come together and attempt to deepen their levels of collaboration, they often begin by defining personal and team roles and responsibilities. This module asks:

What are the types of roles within primary health-care teams? How can understanding team roles and responsibilities be facilitated? What are the challenges for primary health care teams in defining team roles?

B. Team Definition What is a team? One of the most widely used definitions of teams emphasizes the interdependence of team members which distinguishes teams from other work groups: A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.33

Health-care teams will have members with specific functions, such as dietitians, health promoters, physicians, nurse-practitioners and nurses. Each team will also become established as a team. They will need to work through team development tasks that help them to operationalize the benefits of working as a team. During this forming stage, team members need to articulate their common understanding of what it means to be a team. A number of tools have been developed to help teams to articulate their common purpose and state their shared approaches through activities such as developing a team Vision and Values. In the forming stage, a foundation is set for building trust and confidence in each other so they can become comfortable with their mutual accountabilities. (For a full discussion of the team development stages and the tasks of forming, as well as examples of how you can assist your team to name elements of team practice, please see the AOHC publication, Building Better Teams: A Toolkit for Strengthening Teamwork in Community Health Centres.)

31 Canadian Health Services Research Foundation(2006) Teamwork in Healthcare: Promoting Effective Teamwork in Healthcare in Canada p. iii 32 Davies, L., & Ring, L., ( 2007) Building Better Team: Learning from Ontario Community Health Centres AOHC (p.7) 33 Katzenbach, J. and Smith, D. (2003)The Wisdom of Teams Creating the High Performance Organization. p. 45.


In order to assess the areas of forming, including roles and responsibilities, that would be beneficial to your team, you can use the survey below to identify areas that require attention. Compiled results can be shared and discussed as a team. Team Formation Survey34 In order to determine if your team needs to hold discussions aimed at establishing a clear framework to guide its operations, would you please respond to the following questions. Remember that this survey is anonymous. 1. Familiarity: How well do you know the other members of this team? Have you been properly introduced to them? Do you know their personal goals, likes, dislikes, talents and interests? 1 2 3 4 5 Dont know Know some things Know others quite well the others about a few people 2. Goal clarity: How clear are you about the goal of the team? 1 2 3 4 5 Unsure of our goal Somewhat unsure Clear about our goal about our goal 3. Member profile: How clear are you about other members individual skills? To what extent do you know who is an expert in specific areas? 1 2 3 4 5 Dont know Know the skills Clear about skills members skills of some members of all members 4. Rules: Does the team have a set of team rules or norms that members use to govern relations and meeting management? Does the team use and update its rules from time to time? 1 2 3 4 5 We have We have rules We post our no rules but dont use them rules and use them 5. Decision-making options: Has the team explored the different decision-making options and does the team consciously select the method best suited to each situation? 1 2 3 4 5 We are not Sometimes consider We are always aware of how we will make conscious about decision options a decision how we make decisions 6. Clients and services: Has the team created a profile of who the clients are and what services we provide? 1 2 3 4 5 No profile We are somewhat clear We have a exists about the profile profile 7. Work objectives and results measures: Does the team have detailed objectives that include specific results indicators that describe how the team plans to achieve its goal?

34 Bens, I. (2000) p. 43 & 44.


1 2 3 4 5 We dont have We have some objectives We have either and/or some measures both 8. Empowerment plan: Does the team have a clear picture of which decisions it can make and which require management approval? 1 2 3 4 5 There is no We are clear about We are clear about how empowerment some items empowered we are plan 9. Roles and responsibilities: Are you clear about whats expected of you and how your role relates to the roles of other team members? 1 2 3 4 5 Im unclear Im somewhat clear Im totally clear 10. Communication plan: Does the team have a plan that describes who it should communicate with, when, and how? 1 2 3 4 5 No plans Somewhat planned We have a plan Comments: Return the completed survey to: [Insert contact information] Team members seek opportunities to define roles and responsibilities during the team formation stage. Team members may be unclear about their expectations of each other, and group leaders expectations of them; and are probably unsure about the roles each of them will play in the work of the group.35 Team members will want to discuss their roles and responsibilities, often with a heavy emphasis on their tasks. Some people respond to the uncertainty of the forming stage by want[ing] every task defined and allocated to someone and their own job, responsibilities and powers clearly defined.36 Payne cautions that this is a polarity: there may not be a right answer, rather, the team needs to find a balance between too much uncertainty or too much constraint leading to unnecessary bureaucracy. He suggests five categories for considering team priorities, specialization and workload allocation and notes that in practice these categories are often combined with factors such as geographic location and team member skills and interests to create a complex system for defining roles and responsibilities:

legal requirements types of work (for example, group work, cognitive-behavioural therapy) service user categories (for example, client problems) levels of risk, difficulty or complexity organizational or political policies (for example, performance indicators)

C. Dimensions of Team Roles 35 Laiken, M. 1994) 36 Payne, M. (2000) p. 86.


Within any system of devising work roles and responsibilities, there are two dimensions that scholars of teams have observed. Both task roles and maintenance roles contribute to well functioning teams. i. Task roles Task roles, sometimes also called functional roles, are the specific descriptions of each team members function on the team. In order to carry out the goal of the team, the team must develop the right mix of skills the complementary skills necessary to do the teams job.37 Payne has noted that task differentiation in health and social services is generally outlined in competency documents, such as scope of practice statements, legislation or policy documents.38 Position (job) descriptions for each team member also provide a reference point for discussing task roles within the team. Examples of typical functional roles in health-care teams are physicians, dietitians, pharmacists, nurses, nurse practitioners, heath educators or promoters, and social workers or counsellors. Teams may meet as a functional team, such as a program team, administrative team, clinical team and/or as interprofessional teams that include a range of disciplines. Teams that are forming and learning their roles and responsibilities are supported by having some structure. Structure and somewhat more directive leadership take the place of the trust and confidence that has not yet been built. The team will need the leader to provide the structure that will allow them to explore roles and responsibilities while they are learning about each other and the strengths and skills they bring to the team. Examples of structure that can support teams at this stage include:

Regular team meetings. Discussion at team meetings that helps team member to get to know each other and their

complementary skills.

Collecting documentation of roles and responsibilities such as position descriptions and scope of practice statements.

A team discussion on roles and responsibilities can be stimulated by using an activity such as the one below.

What I Give, What I Need39 The goal of this discussion is to assist you to understand what each team members role is in support of your teams vision and goals. First, think of your role and describe what it is that you give to this team- the complementary skills you bring and what you are willing to contribute. Then, think about what you need from the team to be effective and achieve the responsibilities associated with your role. Complete these lines at least 3 times: I provide this team with What I need from the team is Facilitate a round where each person provides their replies. Encourage questions and discussion so that each team member agrees and understands the role(s) of every other team member. You may want to arrange for the replies to be consolidated into a chart that is circula