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  • Biological treatment technologies and

    practices

    composting – biogas – MBT

    Wolfgang Müller

    Universität Innsbruck

    Institut für Umwelttechnik

    Technikerstraße 13 A-6020 Innsbruck

  • 2

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten What do we want to achieve ?

  • 3

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Mixed household waste

  • 4

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Composition of waste – Example Sofia Municipality

    Food waste; 34%

    Garden green waste; 3%

    Wood; 2% Paper; 10%

    Cardboard; 8%

    Plastics; 14%

    Textile; 4%

    Rubber; 1%

    Leather; 1% Glass; 5%

    Metals; 1%

    Inert; 16%

    Hazardous waste; 1%

  • 5

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten

    Food waste; 34%

    Garden green waste; 3%

    Wood; 2%

    Paper; 10% Cardboard;

    8%

    Plastics; 14%

    Textile; 4%

    Rubber; 1%

    Leather; 1% Glass; 5%

    Metals; 1%

    Inert; 16%

    Hazardous waste; 1%

    Composition of waste – Example Sofia Municipality

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    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten

    Food waste; 34%

    Garden green waste; 3%

    Wood; 2%

    Paper; 10% Cardboard;

    8%

    Plastics; 14%

    Textile; 4% Rubber; 1%

    Leather; 1%

    Glass; 5%

    Metals; 1%

    Inert; 16%

    Hazardous waste; 1%

    Composition of waste – Example Sofia Municipality

  • 7

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Feedstocks for biowaste-treatment: bio-bin

  • 8

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Feedstocks for biowaste-treatment: food waste

  • 9

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten “Biowaste”: Source Separated Kitchen and Garden Waste

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    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten

    Treatment target products

    Technologies

    Strategies for biological waste treatment

    Feedstock

    Mechanical-biological waste Treatment (MBT)

    Biowaste treatment

    Clean organic waste „Bio-bin“

    Source separated from households, restaurants, markets …

    Mixed waste „grey bin“

    from household or industry

    Mechanical preparation: shredding, screening, mixing, separation Biological treatment: composting, anaerobic digestion

     Production of high quality compost for land application

     Stabilisation prior to landfilling  Separation of recyclables and RDF  Low quality compost for restricted

    use

     Biogas  renewable energy

  • 11

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Mechanical preparation: Screening

  • 12

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Metal separation – magnet, eddy current separation

  • 13

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Biological waste treatment processes

    Composting

    Organic matter + oxygen  CO2 + water + compost + heat

  • 14

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Windrow composting

    Can be applied for small quanties – decentralized solutions …..

  • 15

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Forced aeration in windrow composting

    Fan Fan

    Ventilation

    pipe

    Drainage water

    Leachate water funnel

    with siphon

    Aeration

    CO2

    Temperature GSM

    transmition

  • 16

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Windrow composting with membrane cover

  • 17

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Windrow composting with roof and housed

  • 18

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Tunnel composting

  • 19

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Table windrow composting with automatic turning

  • 20

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Biological waste treatment processes

    Composting

    Organic matter + oxygen  CO2 + water + compost + heat

    Organic matter + no oxygen  Biogas + digestate

    Anaerobic digestion

    Biogas + oxygen  CO2 + water + energy (electricity + heat)

    digestate + oxygen  CO2 + water + compost

  • 21

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Anaerobic digestion process

    rumen

    saliva

    organic

    material

    rennet

    2nd stomach

    large/small intestine

    fermented

    substrate

    crushing 1st hydrolysis

    disintegration of

    readily biodegradable

    materials

    Methane stage

    Synthesis of

    biogas

    2nd hydrolysis

    disintegration of

    persistent materials

  • 22

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Wet digestion, continous process

  • 23

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Dry Digestion - continous process, vertical systems

  • 24

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Dry Digestion, continous process, horizontal digestors

    - Fermenter essentially consists of a horizontal

    plug flow reactor through which the substrate

    flows continuously and horizontally.

    input, e.g. waste

    dosage

    biogas

    plug flow

    reactor

    digestate

    extraction

    Dewatering

    process water

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    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Dry Digestion, batch process

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    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Dry Digestion, batch process

    wheel loader

    gate

    biogas

    garage-digester

    exhaust air

    percolate tank

  • 27

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten MBT- mechanical biological Treatment of mixed household waste

    Food waste; 34%

    Garden green waste; 3%

    Wood; 2% Paper; 10%

    Cardboard; 8%

    Plastics; 14%

    Textile; 4%

    Rubber; 1%

    Leather; 1% Glass; 5%

    Metals; 1%

    Inert; 16%

    Hazardous waste; 1%

  • 28

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Separation of recylables

    Handsorting

    http://www.titech.de

  • 29

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Reccyclables

  • 30

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten RDF - Refuse derived fuel

    May, 12, 2009

  • 31

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Waste preparation with pulper and grit-removal

    www.bta-international.de

  • 32

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Contraries (separated in wet separation)

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    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten

    MBT –

    generic

    process flow

    and

    mass balance

    mechanical

    processing

    AD

    RDF (5 - 50%)

    Recycables (3 - 25%)

    (metals, plastics, etc.)

    50 - 95%

    stabilised waste

    25 - 60%

    post refinement

    RDF, recycables

    rejects

    compost like output (5 - 15%)

    70 - 120 m³ Biogas/t

    Input

    100%

    maturation (1-3 weeks) Maturation

  • 34

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Required Treatment time for MBT

  • 35

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Properties of compost from a MBT in the UK

  • 36

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Required Treatment time for MBT

    Respiration acitivity

    < 5 mg/g DM

    (German/Austrian

    limits)

    Respiration acitivity

    < 10 mg/g DM

    (EC limit)

    Composting 8 – 16 weeks 5 – 8 weeks

    AD + composting 2-3 weeks AD

    4 – 10 weeks

    composting

    2-3 weeks AD

    2 – 5 weeks composting

  • 37

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Landfilling of MBT residiues

  • 38

    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten Conclusions

     Biological waste treatment is proven and accepted across Europe

     Biological waste treatment provides high flexibility - can be designed for a wide range of capacities – from small to big - can be developed gradually, in terms of capacity and treatment targets - is flexible in terms of feedstock (change from MBT to treatment of clean organic waste)

     Source separated organic waste is increasingly seen as a resource to produce * high quality compost and fertilizer (liquid digestate) * renewable energy from biogas

     MBT is an efficient option for the treatment of mixed waste to meet the requirements of the EU landfill directive

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    Titelmasterformat durch Klicken bearbeiten

    Thank you for your attention

    Wolfgang.Mueller@uibk.ac.at