Au plus près des exclus de l'accès à l'eau

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Recommandations pour une gestion de l’eau inclusive, efficace et durable Illustration au Tchad

Transcript of Au plus près des exclus de l'accès à l'eau

  • 1. COUV Finale_Mise en page 1 06/03/12 18:26 Page2 Au plus prs des exclus de laccs leau Recommandations pour une gestion de leau inclusive, efcace et durable Illustration au Tchad Executive summary in English SIF/Vali FAUCHEUX Secours Islamique France Analyse et plaidoyer Mars 2012
  • 2. RAPPORT FINAL_Mise en page 1 06/03/12 18:14 Page1 Sommaire Summary and recommendationS - enGLiSH VerSion 2 rSum et recommandationS 5 LiSte deS aBreViationS et acronymeS 8 introduction 9 i- LacceS a Leau en aFriQue SuBSaHarienne et au SaHeL: etat deS LieuX - le cas du tchad 11 a. etat des lieux: vers une pnurie en eau? 11 B. La menace de pnurie en eau : une pnurie physique ou conomique? 14 menace dune pnurie physique? des ressources en eau rares cause des bouleversements climatiques 14 une menace aggrave par la pression dmographique sans cesse accrue sur des ressources rares 15 Le tchad: un pays touch par le bouleversement climatique, mais avec des ressources en eau importantes 15 c. Quelles consquences pour les populations concernes? 18 atteintes la sant 18 obstacles lducation 19 consquences conomiques 20 consquences sur lalimentation: cas dtude au tchad 20 Leau source de conits 21 d. aggravation des ingalits et des vulnrabilits 22 disparits gographiques 22 aggravation des vulnrabilits 23 ii- Pour une GeStion eFFicace et duraBLe de Leau 25 a. Quel cadre politique pour une gestion efcace et durable de leau? 25 B. Promouvoir la participation des acteurs de leau tous les niveaux et renforcer leurs capacits 28 Garantir la participation des usagers dans la prise de dcisions et la gestion 28 Professionnaliser et renforcer les capacits du secteur priv 29 renforcer les capacits des autorits publiques 30 Garantir limplication et la coopration entre les diffrents acteurs 31 c. des solutions techniques appropries, accessibles et prennes 33 d. des mcanismes de nancements quitables et prennes 35 un recouvrement des cots durable via une tarication quitable 35 Limportance de la mobilisation des budgets nationaux 37 Laide Publique au dveloppement pour amliorer laccs leau et lassainissement en afrique 37 subsaharienne: le cas de laide franaise mettre en place des mcanismes de nancement innovants 39 e. Veiller la prennit et la qualit de la ressource en eau 41 dvelopper une connaissance approfondie de la ressource en eau 41 Prserver et conomiser la ressource en eau 42 adoption de politiques nationales de rduction des risques 42 Gestion transfrontalire et intgre des ressources en eau : le lac tchad 43 BiBLioGraPHie 45 remerciementS 47 1
  • 3. RAPPORT FINAL_Mise en page 1 06/03/12 18:14 Page2 Acting at the side of those excluded from access to water recommendations for an inclusive, efcient and sustainable water management - the example of chad recommendations W hen taking stock of the situation in sub-Saharan African countries, one can notice a huge Summary and discrepancy between them and the rest of the world when it comes to access to drinking water and basic sanitation facilities. The region as a whole suffers from signicant and in- creasing water stress. In Chad, the country which this report focuses on, the noticeable progress one has been able to notice as regards access to drinking water is still woefully insufficient to meet the needs of the population as a whole. There exist significant differences in particular between rural and urban areas and huge shortages when it comes to sanitation. the impact of global warming is more significant than elsewhere, in particular in the Sahel where it is compounded by drought and its impact on farming, grazing and the spread of deserts. Those upheavals are exacerbated by two factors: Population growth which, in sub-Saharan Africa and the countries of the Sahel, is one of the most significant in the world (with a 2.5% yearly increase and a 3.5% one for Chad) and thus increases the im- balance between the population and natural resources. Spatial and temporal irregular distribution of water resources in a country like Chad, with surface water resources which are very erratic and that only a small percentage of the population can have access to on a small part of the territory, and significant underground aquifers whose renewal speed nobody knows much about. There are clear and multiple impacts of this difficulty in having access to water and sanitation for the populations concerned. The consumption of unclean water, the germ contamination linked to the lack of sanitation naturally have an impact on health, and the diseases linked to water are a real plague in these areas: in Chad, diarrhoea thus remains one of the main causes of infant mortality. There is also an impact on childrens education and economic activities: the time devoted to fetching water is increasingly encroaching on other activities. Besides, water plays a decisive role in the economy and in particular in activities such as farming or grazing. The impact of water shortage is also particularly serious when it comes to food security. In 2011, in the area of the Sahel, water shortages and the uneven distribution of rain have entailed a decrease by 43 % in the surfaces cultivated and a 56 % overall decrease in production in comparison to the average of the past five years. A food crisis is foreseen for the summer of 2012. The scarcity of water triggers off conicts between sedentary farmers and nomadic graziers and also entails tension as regards the management of water resources across borders. Last but not least, water shortage is a global source of poverty and increases inequalities. The most severely hit populations are the most vulnerable ones, and in particular women, children, elderly people or persons with di- sabilities, and rural populations. in the face of growing water shortages and the impact of the populations lack of access to water, it is indis-