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  • JUSTJOO (Issue # 2) G.C. University, Faisalabad ------------------------------------------------------------------

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    THE REQUIREMENTS TO UNDERSTAND THE HOLY QURAN AND IT’s RANSLATIONS

    Hafiz Zaheer Ahmad* ABSTRACT:

    The Holy Quran is the last and final message of Almighty Allah through His Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon Him), which guarantees success for mankind in this world and life hereafter. Allah Almighty has laid down all the laws of valuable knowledge, good deeds and prosperity of the whole mankind in His Book (Quran). In the present era the Muslims are politically, financially, culturally and socially reached the verge of decay and destruction only because they have turned a deaf ear to Holy Quran. The only solution to overcome the miserable plight of Muslim is to understand The Holy Quran. I discussed the requirements to understand the Holy Quran and impacts of its understanding on the life of a Muslim. I categorically discussed the Characteristics of Quranic teaching in the perspective of its understanding. I gave necessary details of the preaching aspect of the Holy Quran.

    The greatest and everlasting living miracle of the annunciation of the Holy Prophet Muhammad ( ) is Quran, and man is unable to expound the greatness of Quran. Quran challenges to the dubious and double minded human being of every age:

    ______________________ * M.Phil. Scholar (Session 2014-2016)

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    وادعوا من مثلہ بسورة "وان کنتم فی ریب مما نزلنا علی عبدنا فاتو من دون اهللا ان کنتم صادقین"ءاشھد )1(کم

    “And if you are in doubt concerning that which we reveal to our Prophet (Mohammad ), then produce a Surah (chapter) like this, and call your witnesses beside Allah if you are true in your words”

    After completion the chain of the preaching of righteousness and guidance, Quran is the only holy book which is the doubtless and without any kind of suspection. ذالک الکتاب الریب فیہ"( "2( “This is scripture whereof there is no doubt” Quran is )3ھدی للمتقین ( “A guidance to those who are pious” ) 4ھدی للناس( “A guidance to the people” In fact, Quran is the only holy book in the world which is entirely consist of truism and rectitude in every sense. )"5" ان ھذا القران یھدی للتی ھی اقوم( ”LO! This Quran guides to that which is straights” The real secret of upright way lies in the holy Quran for the whole human being .This is the standard of nation’s elevation and downfall. یضل بہ اال الفسقین"( یضل بہ کذیرا و یھدی بہ کثیرا و ما "6 ( “(Allah) misleads many thereby, and He guides many thereby; and He misleads thereby only miscreants”

    Quran is the first and last necessity of man. Without it neither man can fulfill the needs of material life completely nor can touch the evaluation of spirituality. Reality of a man, his positive character in a society and his success in the world hereafter belongs to the acting upon the teachings of Islam. So the understanding of Quran is obligation to man.

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    The concept of Islamic life remains meaningless if we are unable to understand the message of God. To understand Quran is to understand Islam. ( من مدکر" 7("ولقد یسرنا القرآن للذکر فھل “We have mad the Quran easy to remember; but is that remembered?” But the question is that, is there anyone who wants to obtain advice from it? What means the easiness of Quran? Is any person can gain understanding about it and pick out advice without any nominated standard? Is there any kind of standard to understand Quran so that we may be able to touch the spirit of its message? The reality is that Quran is a book, a specific book in every way, matchless in every age, the challenge of Quran ( من مثلہ افاتو بسورة ) is unshakeable since the previous fourteen centuries. “Quran claims that all orators, poets, writers, critics are challenged to create a surah (chapter) like Quran. It is the greatest claim and challenge not only for Arabs but also for all humanity.”(8) Eloquence of Arabs fails while it is compared to Quran. No one dares to face it. It is the blessing of God that he made Quran easy without any deep philosophy. Now man’s wisdom does not entangle in its meanings. Molana Iftikhaar Ahmed Balkhi wrote in his essay: “Quran is full with discussion of art and the method of conversation but it is devoid of logic and dialogues. The reason is that logical arguments and dialogue may make listeners answerless, but these things cannot remove doubts from hearts because removing of doubts makes a person

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    calm but the matter of the calling for righteousness on its contrary.”(9) Syed Qutab Shaheed explained it in this way: “Rationalists discussed about the monotheism for centuries but they are unable to get anything from it. Quran explained the reality of oneness and the Rationalists were unable to make a minor part like Quran.”(10) The aim of descending of Quran was not put a man in troubles and anxiety but facilitating, so that human beings may gain the path of action easily and gain eternal success. So, Quran was descended in Arabic language because Arabs knew it well. According to the writer of Urdu Encyclopedia of islam: “Truly the language of Quran is understandable for every tribe and every tribe has devotion and sense of recognition about it.”(11) To understand Quran is not a minor thing. Its understanding is specific because of its matchless conversation and specialty. Special standards require for it. It demands fertile mind. The sense of understanding, firstly, came in the hand of the Holy Prophet ( ).After this step by step, it is the turn of Sahabah. Sahabah (companions) got the understanding of Quran from Prophet ( ). Now in this age, the standards for understanding must be resembled to the standards of Sahabah. Purity of Faith and Certenity: Faith is the first condition to enter Islam and to gain benefits from Quran.It means the universal righteousness of Islam must be accepted from the core of heart and the rejection of futile beliefs. The basic purpose of Quran is the

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    supply of righteousness to man. Quran shows them the right way who have faith in it.

    الیک"( )12"وا لذین یو منون بما انزل “And who believe in that which is revealed to you” In Quran nearly 16 places are mentioned with the word of imperativeness. It means to keep faith in Quran. Heart attachment with Quran cannot be produced without faith. Without faith the understanding of Quran is impossible. Although many non-Muslims claim about the understanding of Quran yet any one of them learnt Quran with devotion, Allah blessed him with its understanding. Many of them accepted Islam and proved themselves true believers. The person who studied Quran with negative point of view, his understanding about Quran took him towards severe disobedience and he misleaded others. In reality he was unable to understand Quran. The reason of the devoidness of understanding of Quran polytheist was absolutely clear. It means their resolution not to withdraw from polytheistness voluntarily and willingly about it

    غشاوة ختم ا هللا علی قلوبھم وعلی سمعھم وعلی ابصارھم was descended. But hypocrites who made jokes Muslims ad tried to give meanings to Quran with their own wish indulged in the marsh of astray. )13( Quran says: "قل ھو للذین امنو ھدی و شفاء والذین ال یومنون فی اذانھم و قر و ھو علیھم

    من )14مکان بعید"(عمی اولیک ینادون “Say to them (O Muhammad) For those who believe it is a guidance and a healing; and as for those who disbelieve, there is a deafness in there ear and it is blindness for them; such are called to from afar”

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    It is decided that one cannot gain right path without faith. Without faith one is unable to understand Quran. The standard of faith is the reason of understanding of Quran. It was the faith of Sahabah which is presented as symbol and it demands to be faithful like them. If a person has a new belief against the belief of Sahabah and shows himself a Muslim, says prayers,observes fast but according to terminology of Quran he is not a true Muslim till he moulds his faith according to the demands of Quran. (15) The Need of the feelings of Understanding Quran: Any living thing does not have an inclination towards eating and drinking without feelings and hungry. In the present age the theory of need takes the shape of dispute at some reserve circumstances and condition, but basically its importance cannot be denied. In the same way,we have spiritual hunger which absolutely demands righteousness but a person cannot understand Quran if he has no feelings about the need of Quran. Syed Modudi says: “The guidance of Quran has been closed for those people who are not convinced of its need. If they have a vision that God gives us guidance but they do not attach themselves with Prophet hood and revelation and they set some beliefs themselves and belongs them to God or they believe only those Holy books which are nominated by their ancestors, Quran detach all these people and shows its guidance only for those who demands it.”(16) Piety and Purification of Mind: Quran is the fountain of righteousness and wisdom. The understanding of Quran demands piety and purification of

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    mind because it is real righteousness and wisdom which is from God and is in his hand .this is the greatest betterment.

    )17(من یوت الحکمۃ فقد اوتی خیرا کثیرا"" “One who is rewarded wisdom, he is blessed with greatest betterment” “ So piety of heart and the realization of ALLAHs majesty is necessary. After this, one can be able to understand the reality of Quran. The Holy Prophet ( ) said: راس الحکمۃ مخافۃ The root of wisdom is the fear of Allah”. In reality“ اهللاpiety is the name of great internal feeling which creates the ability of wisdom in a man. He accepts advice and he understands Quran. Piety leads him, in his life, towards difference between right and wrong. Syed Modudi says: “A person who has piety and afraid of wrong end is conscious about his way. Such person will listen to the advice of that person who shows difference between right and wrong and guides him towards success and eternal blessings.”(18) So it is decided that piety is necessary for the understanding of Quran and gaining benefits from it. Allah has declared that Quran provides right way only to those who gained righteousness. The understanding of Quran demands the acceptance of influence and righteousness. Molana Saeed Akbar Alabadi says: “Evolution means person has ability to understand Quran spiritually and feels its effection.”(19)

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    Struggle for Understanding: Understanding of Quran demands eloquence; otherwise it is impossible to understand it although you have faith and spirituality. It is decided by nature.

    )20("لیس لالنسان اال ما سعیٰ" “Man has only that for which he makes effort” And it is said: وجدمن جد “He who struggle ,gained” Quran says: )21الذین جاھدو فینا لنھد ینھم سلبنا"(و" “As for those who fight hard in us, we surely guide them to our paths” So continue struggle is necessary for attainment of aim .The companions of the Prophet ( ) devoted their lives for understanding of Quran. After getting faith, the priority of their thinking changed and their eventual aim was only to understand Quran and following of Prophet. Dar-e-Arqam in Makah and Suffah in Medinah was such institutions from where the fountains of understanding of Quran spread and their blessings covered all over the world. Companions of the Prophet ( ) directly got the understanding of Quran from Prophet. For this purpose they worked day and night and they did their duty devotedly in order to gain the true spirit of Quran. It was companions of the Holy Prophet ( ) who understood Quran in its true spirit and they acted upon its teachings according to the will of God. So they were rewarded the certificate ( رضی اهللا عنہم ) )22( Nothing can touch their rank among nation of faith, piety and understanding of Quran .But after accepting them leader, one can make the ways of understanding bright. Sahabah has three ways of understanding Quran:

    1. Taking knowledge from Prophet ( )

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    2. Getting knowledge from others 3. Pondering (23)

    Tendency Towards Arabic: Tendency towards Arabic language is compulsory for understanding of Quran. The language of Quran is prominent and different in the using of words, meanings, Sentences, language and addressing. The first listeners of Quran were Arabs who knew ups and downs, showy and hidden meanings of Quran. What is tendency towards Quran? According to Saeed Ahmad Akbar Alabadi: “Remember, to understand Arabic does not mean that a person may translate Arabic into Urdu or another language. The ability of translating Quran helps one to understand it at minor level but as long as he has no tendency towards Arabic, he is unable to understand it fully.” )24( According to Imam Shafi: “A person cannot understand reserve way of narrating Quran as long as he has not any ability to understand Arabic language into Arabic.” This is the matter of Arabic. It is the same rule for every language to know its reality. The Persons who speak different languages are not equal. But a person who has no tendency towards any language ,he is unable to receive its impact. When a lover of any language hears it ,he becomes too much happy. For example the verse of Hakeem Momen Khan Momen:

    ہوتے ہو گویا جب کوئی دوسرا نہیں ہوتاتم میرے پاس Countless people who hear this verse but it is said when Ghalib heard, he said wistfully:

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    “It is my desire that Momen may give me this verse and take all of my anthology in return.” The Acquaintance about References of Quran and its Knowledge: To understand Quran is necessary to know its reference and context. It is necessary for understanding of Quran. Without it, access to reality is impossible. For example Quran says:

    )25"و اذکرو اهللا فی ایام معدودات"( “Remember God through appointed days” If we detach this sentence from Quran, it will be thought that it is a common order to pray to God. But when we observe its references and contexts, we will understand that it mean Rammi Jammar ( رمی جمار ) during the time of Ayyam-e-Tashreeq ( ایام تشریق ) There are many examples like this. Molana Saeed Ahmed Akbar Abadi says about the importance of references to contexts in this way: “Do not dare to explain a sentence after seeing its one word, but it is necessary to study Quran throughout so that one may understand its way of narration. In this way one can explain its meaning without difficulties.”(26 ) If we try to understand Quran without its reference and contexts, it will lead towards astray. It is against divine lows to assume an opinion about the understanding of Quran and follow it. To avoid from personal opinion is must. Holy Prophet ( ) said:

    من تکلم فی القرآن برا یۃ فا ")" )27صاب فقدا خطٌا

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    “A person who said something about it, he was at fault although his opinion was right” Obviously it is strange that right opinion is rejected by Prophet ( ) but the fact is on the contrary. It means such opinion which is against authentic principles of Quran. Although one concludes towards right result, yet he is at fault because he chooses the wrong way and many people choose this way and it is not necessary that everyone draws towards true result. Justice Taqi Usmani says: “The first and most dangerous reason of astray in the explanation of Quran is that man starts to show his opinion about Quran without knowing his ability. Particularly in our age, it is becoming more critical. It is misunderstanding to think that a person may become a scholar after studying Arabic language and after this one explains Quran as he understands. It is thinkable that there is not any kind of art and knowledge in the world which can be gained after understanding its knowledge only. Any sensible person did not claim to be a doctor after understanding English language and he may start practice as doctor, but for this person, he has to go through many kinds of examination in big institutions.” (28 ) Holy Prophet ( ) said:

    من قال فی القرآن بغیر علم فلیت من النار"(" )29بوا مقعدہ “”A person who talked about Quran without knowledge, must go to hell” Taqi Usmani writes about the learning of important knowledge for understanding Quran:

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    “The explanation of Quran does not require minor knowledge of Arabic language, it demands principles of explanation knowledge of Hadith, principles of Hadith, principles of Islamic laws, knowledge of Islamic laws, knowledge of accidence and syntax, knowledge of dictionary, knowledge of literature and at home familiarity eloquence as well as piety and piousness.” ( 30) Understanding of Hadith for Understanding of the Holy Quran: Quran descended upon the personality of Prophet Muhammad ( ). Quran said: ٰینطق عن الھوی )31ان ھو اال وحی یوحی"( 0 "و ما “He does not speak of (his own) desire; it is nothing except an inspiration that he inspired” Further said:

    س ما نزل الیھم"( الیک الذکر لتبین للنا )32"و انزلنا “”And we have revealed to you the remembrance that you may explain to people which has been revealed for them”

    الیک الذکر لتبین لھم اللذی اختلفوا فیہ"( )33"و انزلنا “We have revealed the scripture to you only that you may explain to them that wherein they differ” So it is clear that it was not the only duty of Prophet to delivered words of Quran to the others, but the aim of descending of Quran was more then it. It means the preaching of Quran and wisdom, explanation and purity of heart and it is said in this way: من قبل لفی "و یتلو علیھم ایتہ و یزکیھم و یعلمھم الکتب و الحکمۃ و ان کا نو

    )34ضالل مبین"(

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    “Who (prophet) recites to them His revelation, and purifies them of their sin, and teaches them the scripture and wisdom; All though before they were in flagrant error” So, Quran and understanding of Quran both are descended upon Prophet ( ) and his personality is nominated as the best personality who thought it practically. Understanding of Quran cannot be gained until a person understands Hadith. Its example is that a person takes medicine from a doctor but he does not follow his instructions, there is no need of explaining its result. Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Khan wrote in his essay “ ن در ھمہ قرٓا

    “ شان محمدی “Quran and the life of Holy Prophet ( ) are part of parcel of each other. A person who did not see Prophet, see Quran, but the person who did not see the whole of Quran, Prophet was enough for them. Every event of his life is the translator of Quran and presents a practical shape of its orders. The person who studied Quran after seeing Prophet, gained right path and the person who studies Quran without the instructions of Prophet ( ), devoid of right path.” ( 35 ) Translation of Quran for Understanding of Quran: Translation of Quran is necessary for understanding of Quran. Without translation, the language will remain under the authority who know and understand it and its connect with outer world will disconnect and other nations will not gain benefits from it. So, translation from one language into

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    other is necessary and Quran gained universal importance because of its universal message. Translation is a Latin world which entered into Arabic language long age. The meaning of it, is to understand and teach. The importance of translation is necessary for both Arabs and non-Arabs. There is no way of understanding of Quran till suitable acquaintance with Arabic language and literature. Translation of Quran into other language is the basic reason for the necessity of the understanding of non-Arabs. It has some other reasons also. Dr. Saliha Abdul Hakeem Sharaf-Ud-Din says: “New technical term come into beings because of the vanishing of the old words and technical terms. So, many translations have been done in order to meet the challenges of language evolution. Man’s society in every age has reserved values and tendency. So, Scholars thought it necessary to translation Quran according to the need of age. Some translations consisted of self-opinions so such persons may reject or select others according to their own wishes. The mind of the derailment of virtue also becomes the reason of the translation of Quran. Some translations were exposed on the basis of business. Some enemies of Islam printed wrong translation of Quran voluntarily in Urdu to mutilate Quran.”(36)

    Translation of Quran, Particularly belongs to difficult arts: “Some time, some words of one language have not the same meanings in other language. Some situation can be

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    observed with proverbs. It is all about man’s writing and the writing of Allah is matchless as compare to the writing. So, accurate translation of Quran cannot be done by man. Imam Ibn Qutaiba writes that descending of Quran according to the ways of every language. That is why any translator of Quran cannot translate it completely.”( 37 ) The translation of Quran has been done in every active language of the world. The interesting thing in this regard is that: “All the translation of Quran is the result of the devotion and hardworking of man. Any Arabic scholar did not try to translate Quran into other language till now. May be they have no feelings that how difficult is to understand Quran for non-Arabs. On the contrary non-Muslims Arabic felt the need of understanding Bible. So, non-Muslims Arabs translated Bible into Arabic language much.”(38) It is a matter of concentration for faithful and intellect people of Arabia to translate Quran into other language with their reserve love for Arabia and highlights the understanding of Quran with the help of the background of Arabs. Regards for the needs of Quranic Explanation: Explanation and translation have a basic role for the understanding of Quran. So, the translator of Quran must have the qualities as the explanatory have. In fact translation is the shape of explanation. Both have the aim of understanding Quran. Both have similarities between needs.

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    Translator must know the law of explanation; otherwise the true translation of the Quran is impossible. If we ponder, we come to know that the discussion about translation and explanation have some points. Care for the Condition of Social and present age: The subject of the translation of Quran and its need and importance does not require to explain. It is inevitable need of Quranic understanding that its translation had been done in non-Arabic languages and the art of translation nominated the real aim of Quran. The aim of understanding Quran demands revolution in man’s life. The revolution of thinking, practically, individually and collectively, so that man may redeem from wrongs beliefs. In this way the character of man may be lead towards right path and he may gain the right of فی الدنیا حسنۃ و فی االخرہ حسنۃ So, the matter of translation is too much delicate. It demands not only complete grip and power of Arabic literature but also too much care, piety and need of the knowledge of Hadith. It is necessary not to produce meanings of Quran according to one’s wish and try to avoid self-will. Translation with exaggeration leads people towards astray and the real aim of understanding of Quran vanishes. The society of today and the present condition of Islamic world take us towards new needs.

    Refrences 1: AL-BAQARAH : (2)23

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    2: // : (2)02 3: // : (2)02 4: // : (2)185 5: AL-NISA : (17)09 6: AL- BAQARAH : (2)26 7: AL-QAMAR : (54)17 8: Malik Ghulam Murtaza , DR, ن Malik),انوارالقرٓاSons,Lahore,1986)1/73 9: Iftikhar Ahmad Bhatti ,Molana, ن مجید کا طرز قرٓا ,Quran number,Sayyara Digest (Idar e Mouarif Urdu,استداللKarachi, Editor :professor Khursheed Ahmad,November 1969)1/133 10: Syed Qutab shaheed ,ن مجید کا اسلوب بیان :translation,قرٓاProfessor Ghulam Ahmad Hareeri(Tariq Academy Faisalabad, January 1983)Page: 168 11: Urdu Islamic Encyclopedia (Danish Gaah e Punjab, Lahore) 16/1/333 12: Al-BAQARAH : (2)04 13: Abdul Baqi, Muhammad Fawad, المعجم ا لمفھرس ال لفاظن الکریم (Dar Ul Hadith Cairo),القرٓا14: AS-SAJDAH : (32)44 15: Mufti Muhammad Shafi , ن 1/128,معارف القرٓا16: Modudi ،ن 1/51تفھیم القرٓا17: AL-BAQARAH : (2)289 18: Mododi ,2/315 , تفھیم القراان 19: Molana Saeed Ahmad Akbar Abadi, ن Idara) ,فھم القرٓاIslamiat,Lahore,Karachi,January 1982)P: 41 20: AL-NAJM : (53)39 21: AL-ANKABUT: (29)69

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    22: AL-MAIDAH :(5)116, AT-TAOBAH:(9)100, AL-MUJADILAH:(58)22, AL-BAIYINAH:(98)8 23: Syed Maroof Shah Sheerazi, ن طریق استفادہقرٓا سے صحابہ کا ،,Quran Number ,Sayyara Digest. 24: Syed Akbar Abadi, ن P: 46 , فھم قرٓا25: al- BAQARAH: (2)203 26: Saeed Akbar Abadi, ن P: 27 ,فھم قرٓا27: Hafiz Ibn e Katheer,مقدمہ تفسیر ابن کثیر 28: Muhammad Taqi Usmani, ن P: 359 ,علوم القرٓا29: Hafiz Ibn Katheer, مقدمہ تفسیر ابن کثیر 30: Muhammad Taqi Usmani,ن P:163, علوم القرٓا31: AL-NAJM: (53)03 32: AL-NAHL: (16)44 33:AL-NAHL: (16)64 34: AAL-IMRAAN: (3)164, AL-JUMUAH: (62)02 35: Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Khan, ( شان محمد( ن در ہمہ قرٓا,Rasool number,Naqoosh,1/89 36: Dr.Saliha Abdul Hakeem Sharaf Ud Din, ن مجید کے قرٓا ( Qadeemi Kutab Khana,Karachi),اردو تراجمP:67-69 37: // P: 70 38: // P: 70-71